An Age of Darkness By:Abbey Corn (12.5 The Renaissance (A Revival of…
An Age of Darkness By:Abbey Corn
12.1 Economic Expression
Spiritual & Material Poverty
Quality of life in Europe seemed unlikely to ever be experienced again.
Feudalism had fallen into Europe, and mankind seemed to take a step backwards.
Mankind fell into darkness and distorted Christianity.
From Rome to the Middle Ages
Prosperity Under Rome
Pax Romana (Roman Peace) = greatest prosperity word had ever known
A network of trade routes connected the empire and creates safe trading
Business and cities boomed throughout the empire.
Declined in the Middle Ages
The populations of towns shrank.
Confusion and violence, invasion and civil war, insecurity and uncertainty followed after the Fall of Rome.
Pirates reclaimed he seas, trade declined, & dragged the economy down with it.
War and Barbarians
Conquering stiffed western shipping in he Mediterranean.
In the 9th and 10th century, he western depression reached its lowest point
Europe was ravaged with war, disorder, and strife.
A Rural Culture
Many towns were little more than ruins with a small population.
95% of he population of western Europe lived in the country
Most people in Europe were desperately poor.
12.2 Spiritual Ignorance
Many people had a false notion of how Christians live.
The first Christians lived separated lives, bu hey did no withdraw from the world.
The 3rd and 4th centuries monasticism became he ideal of some who called themselves a Christain
Monasticism - withdrawing from society and living in solitude
Monk - men who practice monasticism
Nun - same thing as a monk but a woman.
They prayed for hours , reciting short memorized prayers
The hermits believed that the more they withdraw from the world, the more they would alone with God
Hermits sought to please God by torturing themselves.
celibacy - they would never marry
hermits (alone) - the earliest monks that lived in the wilderness
The Benedict rules covered every part of a monks daily activities
The monks though they were living exactly like Christ had commanded.
Monasteries dotted the European landscapes during the Middle Ages.
monasteries - religious communities isolated from the rest of society.
Benedict - the founder of a monastery in Italy
The monks thought their life of self- denial would please God so much that they would earn their salvation
friar - a new kind of monk
Doctrines of the Roman Church
Baptist and the Eucharist
The Roman Church encouraged prayer addressed to the wrong person.
They couldn't understand anything that went on in the church services unless they understood Latin.
The people who didn't go to monasteries were still taught that only by going through certain motion they would be saved.
Eucharist - the Lord's supper
transubstantiation - the belief that the Lord's supper actually changed their substance
The Virgin Mary, saints, and priest
Only by confessing one's sin to a priest and asking obtaining his forgiveness could a man hope he doesn't go to hell.
They never experienced a sense of God in their souls only guilt.
The people were taught to pray to Jesus' mom, Mary.
saints - deceased persons officially recognized by the church as holy
Indulgences, Purgatory, and Penance
indulgences - certifications from the pope.
penace - punishments in this life
Purgatory - the place where repent sinners had to stay after death
With money they erected church buildings as their personal palaces.
People went to amazing lengths to earn salvation.
The Roman Church and the Bible
The church did not want people to have access to scripture.
Vulgate - a Latin translation
The Roman church place the writings of early church leaders.
Jerome - almost the only version of the Bible available in the Middle Ages
Council of Toulouse - forbade anyone except a church leader to have a Bible
Breviary - a book with the official order of worship in church services.
Early Challenged to the Early Church
He saw that salvation did not depend upon Church membership
John had the entire Bible translated into Bible for the first time.
John Wycliffe - a teacher at Oxford University
John died in 1384 but in 1409, church leaders condemned his beliefs and his translation of the Bible.
In 1482, the pope commanded that John's remains were to be dug up and burned.
Council of Constance - they condemned John of over 200 crimes and ordered his writings burned.
Lollards - John's followers
John Wycliffe's writings found their way to Bohemia in central Europe.
Huss knew that only God can forgive our sins and that salvation only come through Christ.
John Huss - a teacher and dean of the University of Prague
In 1415 Huss attended the Council of Constance to defend his beliefs.
Hussites - Huss' followers.
Heresy and the Inquisition
Anabaptists, Waldensians, and Abigenians - groups that courageously made their disagreements with the church.
Montanists, Novatians, and Donatists - these people tried to withdraw from the church over moral issues.
The Roman church could not tolerate any more disagreement.
heretics - people who disagreed with any official church opinion.
inquisition - a church court with the power to inquire about and judge matters of heresy.
An inquisition would arrive and call for reporters for anyone who suspected heresy.
12.4 The Holy Roman Empire
Reviving the Empire
Otto the Great
A powerful duke named Henry the Fowler came to the throne in Germany and set up he Saxon live of kings.
When Henry was done ruling in 936 his son named Otto became king.
When Otto joined forces with the pope, his first step to his scheme was to stabilize his power.
Otto defeated the Magyars and pushed Germany´s borders farther eastward earning the title the Great.
In 962, the Holy Roman Empire was born when the pope crowned Otto Emperor of the Romans.
Decline in Politics
The last Carolingian ruler of Germany died in 911, the dukes elected the weakest among themselves to be king of Germany.
The remains of Charlemagneś empire rotted away under the feudal system.
The fabricated a political monster called the Holy Roman Empire that kept a considerable part of Europe in chaos.
Germany crumbled into a number of small territories, each ruled by a powerful noble was called a duke.
Popes and Politics
During the 10th century, the church had fallen into troubled times.
The independent pope
Popes would never be respected and powerful as long as they owned their position to Roman nobles.
Pope Nicholas II decreed that henceforth popes would be chosen only by a cardinals
Cardinals were the priest of the churches in Rome or bishops of churches close to Rome.
Gregory VII's vision
Gregory wanted o be sure that the popes were more powerful than the emperors.
He demanded that all princes must kiss the feet of the pope.
Gregory VII was one of the fist popes chosen.
Pope versus Emperor
Germany was no more a united country at the end of the Middle Ages.
The Holy Roman Empire presented a pitiful spectacle compared to the mighty Roman Empire.
The pope and emperor inevitably envied one anotherś power and quarreled.
The philosopher Voltaire rightfully ridiculed it as "neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire.
Turmoil in Europe
The Black Death is a plague that swept Europe and killed one third to half the population.
Infected rats and fleas carried the disease throughout the cities.
Everyone lived in dread of this plague except for the Jews because the practiced biblical standards of cleanliness.
People soon began to loose respect for the popes.
In pursuit in money and power, the popes spent more time on politics.
People looked up to the popes because of how they represented Christ so when the popes lost interest on the church, they were bound to loose respect.
Councils versus popes
By 1450, the popes declared a Great Jubilee to celebrate their triumph over the councils.
The next thirty years, popes and councils struggles against each other.
By 1400, many people in high positions that something had to be done about the conditions of the Roman Church
The year 1500 and the beginning of modern times, it seemed the Middle Ages were ending just as they begun. (Politics and distorted Christianity stayed as mixed as ever).
12.5 The Renaissance
Europe in the 14 Century
Political and economic progress
The Middle Class consists of merchants and businessmen who were neither extremely rich or poor.
The Crusades failed to capture the Holy Land but instead, they revived interest in European trade with the Orient.
Europe began to see some economical changes as a result of the Crusades.
The burden of distorted Christianity greatly hindered progress in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Several powerful nation- states arose during the Middle ages, including England, France, and Spain.
Prosperity in Italy
Genoa Venice imported goods from the Middle East and then distributed these by land through in land cities like Milan and Florence.
The family of Florentine Giovanni de´ Madici was a 14th century merchant and banker.
The trade with the Orient made the cities of Italy the larges and busiest in Europe.
A Revival of Learning
Beginnings in Italy
This dream led to the Renaissance which means rebirth.
The longed for a rebirth in learning in Greece and Rome.
Many smart Italians were repulsed by the condition into which learning had fallen since ancient times.
Focus on the humanities
The schoolmen usually had little interest in the humanities.
The writings of ancient Greeks and Romans suddenly became the rage in Italy.
Humanities means history, rhetoric, and poetry.
Many refused to write in any other language except the classical Latin.
What began as an interest in the humanities soon became an expression of human pride and vanity.
Humanism means intense interest in he subjects of the humanities.
The church leaders became the greatest patrons of all.
People who use their own money to support the arts are called patrons.
A Renaissance man was a person who displays his talent in all fields.
Leonardo de Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo made many of the sculptures and paintings can be seen in museums today.
Leonardo found it easier to write backwards because he was left- handed.
Leonardo de Vinci was a painter, sculptor, inventor, and engineering who left notebooks of sketches.
His most famous painting was the Mona Lisa which is a portrait of an unknown woman with a mysterious smile.
His other famous painting was the Last Supper which is painting with Jesus and his disciples eating dinner.
He died at 37 but still managed to paint hundreds of paintings.
His famous paintings were called the Sistine Madonna and the School of Athens
Pope Julius II hired him to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican (the place where the popes lived in Rome)
He is known for his marble statues including David and Moses.
His paintings had biblical themes and are noteworthy for their dramatic realism
The End of the Middle Ages
The Renaissance prepared the way for a more important movement that would lead Europe out of the darkness and into the light of the Modern Ages.
The Renaissance spread to France to Germany.
Machiavelli and The Prince
The Prince was written in 1513 by Niccolò Machiavelli
He dreamed of a rebirth of the political greatness of Ancient Rome
The only book lasting importance by the Italian Renaissance was The Prince.
He completely ignored the role of God in world events and exalted man in His place.
12.3 In the Dark
Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales which is one of the first great works of literature.
Dante tried to mix the ideas of the Roman Virgil with Christianity.
Dante wrote Divine Comedy which is one of the few pieces that is till widely read.
Thomas spoke slowly but had brilliant mind.
Thomas Aquinas - the man who combined Aristotle and Romanism successfully.
The Roman Church gave it an official approval and forbade anyone who disagreed.
A tool of the church
William used logic to discredit the doctrine of the Pope's absolute supremacy.
scholasticism - tried to combine Greek philosophy and Romanism
William of Ockham - educated under scholastics at Oxford University.
The church found scholasticism useful for making distorted Christianity seem reasonable.
Schools and schoolmen
Teachers and pupils began to gather in organized groups.
schoolmen - their teachers and pupils.
schools - the ancestors of modern universities (By 1500 they were nearly 100 schools in Europe.)
They were soon calling Aristotle The Philosopher.
Learning began to revive in western Europe between 1000 and 1300 with the growth of cities.
European scholars were most impressed with the Greek philosopher Aristotle.
Decline in Learning
Decline of education
Few people had the time or interest to think beyond the pressing needs of the moment.
Education fared better in the Eastern Roman Empire and under he Arab Muslims.
Church officials and monks were almost he only educated men in western Europe.
Learning in Rome after Christ
The City of God - where Augustine presented a Christian philosophy of history.
The Confessions - a book of prayers, praises, and meditations addressed entirely to God.
Many people in Western Europe had accepted Christ as savior.
Augustine - the bishop of the church a Hippo Regius in North Africa.
The truths of Christianity challenged peoples minds like never before.