Work and Benefits 1917-53
Work and Benefits 1917-53
Employment and Benefits 1930's
rapid industrialisation led to full employment for men and women
Did NOT increase standard of living
Relatively well paid jobs in cities attracted peasants from horrors of poverty associated with
- Stalin did not care for the safety of workers.
Working conditions deteriorated due to Five-Year-Plans
fast construction was more important than safety
evident within miners dangerous conditions
Soviet Helacare. 'Party First' policy where party members received guaranteed vaccines while others workers queue for remains
Party members received 'banquets instead of just rations like everyone else. Showing radical inequalities
Peasants did not benefit less than workers. Not entitles to rations, and food was more scarcer on farms than cities as government seized the vast majority from farms. Late 1930's farmers would travel to towns to buy bread due to limited amounts
Stalin bought in harsh labour discipline
Unions lost right to negotiate with factory managers
Damaging factory property was criminalised
Lateness was criminalised
Strikes were banned
Also introduced 'Continuous Work Week'
1940 workers lost right to change jobs. During FYP demand for labour was high as factories needed many workers to meet targets.
Internal Passports were introduced to prevent workers moving from town to town without permission
Workers were entitled to food rations
1933 most soviets had access to electricity
During 1930's 30,000km of railways were built increasing access to transport Passenger transport increased by 400% in 1930's
Moscow Metro opened 1930's providing underground transport
Significant increase in healthcare provision: mass vaccination campaigns dealing with, smallpox, diphtheria, malaria, typhoid
During NEP benefits were available through trade unions or local soviets. In 1930's benefits were available through factories or collective farms. This re-emphasies the link between work and social welfare
Work and Benefits 1918-21
widespread unemployment of early 1918 was ended by introducing compulsory labour.
From September 1918 able bodied me between 16-50 lost the right to refuse employment.
People in work were given a work card entitling them to rations.
Population was divided into 6 groups according to occupation. Rationing system was based on class so that working people received most rations. People in middle-class occupations received LESS.
Rationing was organised by Prodraspred. Tried to deliver to schools and people who could not could due to illness/disability
In Moscow and Petrograd a work card entitled workers to travel on public transport
Communal dining halls were set up in factories to feed workers
Other communal facilities such as laundries and creches were provided in urban centrist help women working in factories.
Party members enjoyed privileges. Government ran special shops where members could acquire foods/goods that were scarce.
Factory closure and food scarcity meant War communism failed to create a system of full employment which provided social security for working people.
Work and Benefits 1920's
Percentage of labour force UNEMPLOYED
1922 - 8.6
1923 - 16.6
1921 - 5.5
1924 - 18.00
This was because:
1921/1922 soldiers from the Red Army were demobilised found it hard to get work
Urban workers who left cities at end of the Civil War returned and got no work
As War communism ended government sacked 225,000 employed administrators
At beginning of NEP government tried to 'rationalise' industry so cut down workers needed in factories
1922 Labour Law
gave unions the right to negotiate binding agreements about pay and working conditions with employers
paid disability benefits, maternity benefits, unemployment benefits and medical benefits covered 9 million workers
most comprehensive system in the world. But peasants nearly entirely excluded from these benefits
Government invested in education for urban workers and families
Attempts to increase productivity in 1926 kept urban unemployment high in mid 1920's. Jobs were prioritised for former Red Army members
Funding for creches ended, these policies and traditional sexism decreased the chance of women employment
Employment and Benefits 1945-53
Full employment continued after WW2
Industrial workforce increased from 8 million to 12.2 million between 1945-1950 (due to returning soldiers)
Healthcare improved significantly
infant mortality declined by 50% between 1940 and 1950
Number of medical doctors increased by two thirds between 1947 and 1952
Vaccines for common diseases such as typhus and malaria were made universally available from 1947
NO improvement in health in Society people
planned economy did not produce simple things like soap, warm clothing and shoes, led to greater health problems
food was a major problem. Shortages were compromised by work canteens using rotten food, animal feed and foods unfit for human comsumption
Sanitation in factories and farms was often inadequate. Led to lice infections, vomiting, outbreaks of dysentery.
Hygiene education was poor.Only by 1947 was there a publicity campaign advertising to wash hands after the toilet and using loo's in 'a civilised fashion'
Eating in communal canteens cost 250-300 Robles a month (half a workers monthly wage)
workers under 18 were entitled to three subsidised meals a day in factories or farms but many could not afford this
there was a marked decline in communal dining after the war
Work and benefits under Lenin
Work was influenced by Marx. 2918 he published the Declaration of the Rights of Toiling and Exploited People. Introduced two principles designed to transform work
The declaration abolished private ownership of land. Capitalists could not make money
Introduced universal labour duty. To eliminate the 'parasitical layers of society' to ensure everyone worked.
Principles were enshrined in every vision of the Soviet Constitution
Ensuring stable employment was extremely difficult between October 1917 and mid 1918 because of revolutionists.
Around 570 industrial enterprises closed between March and August 1917.
Unemployment increased to over 100,00 by October 1918.
Situation worsened when Russia left WW. War production ceased, leading to higher unemployment. March 1918 0 75% of chemical and metal workers in Petrograd were unemployed
Lenin's early economic plans failed to stop the disintegration of the economy and rising unemployment.