BARRIERS TO USE AND MISUSE GENOME EDITING ( Sonia Ben OG+ Kathleen Vogel…
BARRIERS TO USE AND MISUSE GENOME EDITING ( Sonia Ben OG+ Kathleen Vogel & Marc Salit)
Complexities and Contingencies
2 Problems to Address:
Replication of Experimental Work
Off Target Effects: CRISPR cuts wrong site and causes unwanted mutations
-Off Target Effects won't stop CRISPR from being used maliciously
-Highlights the difficulties in using
-Likely to pose problems for those attempting to use for bioweapon usage
Replication of Experimental Work
Experimental replication is not impossible, but is also not trivial.
Useful to study experiment replication
--how/why some studies are difficult to replicate
Need to have some sort of baseline/ continual analysis because social and technical factors change over time.
Biotechnology as a threat.
History and narrative (dating back to 1980's)--useful to examine this narrative--the thoughts and impetus of this thinking
Focus--How the tech will drive security threats--'Group think' oversimplifies the technology and disregard critical factors necessary to evaluate the true nature/capabilities of the tech
CRISPR is uniquely bad example because it almost always works. IT is different than any there technology which is almost unique among other bio technologies available. CRISPR is the exception that proves the rule. Not concerned with CRISPR from a security perspective. Can we use CRISPR as an example for other tech that may be dangerous in the future?
WHO does CRISPR ALWAYS work for? You? It may not always work for everyone that uses it. Technology is not always in a vaccum. How to people interact with tech? This is what can make tech dangerous
Show me the Evidence. We need to have evidence-based studies to prove.
In terms of responsibility, CRISPR is special. So are ZFNs but difference is that CRISPR is easier to tune
If you look at CRISPR in isolation as a piece of the puzzle, that is asking "how hard is it to make a car and CRISPR is some technology for asking spark plugs'. We've gotten into fuel injection rather than carborators .
Context is really important. Disagree-- How might things go bad? How do you break a car rather than how do you build a car. To Watters-- we DO know what to write if we want to do harm. The off-target thing doesn't bother me so long as I'm relatively efficient. I don't care about reproducibility if 1/10 of my experiments is successful. I would be looking at delivery technologies and what are the hindrances
: Are you a skilled practitioner? It assumes a certain kind of skill level. Need more studies which look at the interaction between the motivations and intent. HOW do you need to be trained? What skills do you need?
: There is a value in avoiding off-target effects in the therapeutic fields.
: he phenomenon of attenuating pathogens after modification is not unique. The phenom is why a national lab stated you couldn't have intentionally antibiotic resistant pathogens.
: Difference between an agent and a weapon
: Are the new tools really relevant to microbes?
: Off-Targets are more useful using different methods (cell lines, etc.)
SONIA & KATHLEEN
Importance of analyzing CRISPR in certain contexts
--What skills are required
--What experimental variables are at play?
--How does this affect the usage of CRISPR and the study of it?
CRISPR IS NOT A BIG DEAL:
--Not well Understood
--Difficult to use still
How long until CRISPR is easy enough to use practically?
The enterprise necessary to use CRISPR for these threats is not currently there. It will be, but it is not
Scary: Engineering a pathogen to work on the scale of smallpox, plague, and 1918 flu--CRISPR isn't there
Is there a socio-tehnical respinsibility to establish governance?