Sensorimotor Stage: (Birth to 2 years) (Sub-stage 4: Coordination of…
Sensorimotor Stage: (Birth to 2 years)
Infants learn about themselves and their world through their developing sensory and motor activities.
Sub-stage 1: Simple reflexes (Birth – 1 month)
Newborn reflexes E.g. rooting, eye blinking, sucking, swimming, moro, palmar grasp, tonic neck, stepping and Babinski
Sub-stage 2: Primary circular reactions (1 – 4 months)
Infants repeat pleasurable behaviors that first occurred by chance.
E.g. thumb sucking
Infants make first acquired adaptations. E.g. they suck different objects differently. When given a bottle, an infant is able to adjust his sucking to the rubber nipple.
Sub-stage 3: Secondary circular reactions (4 – 8 months)
Infants become more interested in the environment.
The ability of reaching and manipulating objects play a major role in turning an infant’s attention outward.
E.g. an infant hits a toy hung in front of him, trying to recapture the interesting effect of the swinging toy.
Integration of vision, hearing, grasping and movement behaviors. E.g. see rattle, reach rattle, shake rattle
Sub-stage 4: Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8 – 12 months)
Intentional or goal-directed behavior.
▪ Coordinate schemes to solve simple problems. E.g. hidden toy experiment
4 months: no attempt to search for hidden object
4-9 months: visual search for hidden object
9 months: search for and retrieve hidden object
Begin to master ‘object permanence’
understand that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched.
Still make A-not-B search error (Diamond, 1985).
8-12 months: look for an object in a place where they first found it after seeing it hidden, even if they later saw it being moved to another place.
Master object permanence
12-18 months: search for an object in the last place they saw it hidden, but not searching for it if they did not see it hidden.
18-24 months: object permanence is fully achieved. Children will look for an object even if they did not see it hidden.
Sub-stage 5: Tertiary circular reactions (12 -18 months)
Toddlers show curiosity and experimentation.
E.g. shaking different rattles to hear their sounds.
They use trial and error in solving problems. E.g. figure out how to fit a shape through a hole in a container by turning and twisting it until it falls through.
They can distinguish self from others. E.g. A child seeks help from immediate family members.
Sub-stage 6: Mental representation (18 – 24 months)
able to mentally represent objects and actions in memory, largely through symbols such as words, numbers, and mental pictures.
Deferred imitation - the repetition of other people’s behavior a substantial time after it occurred
Understanding of properties of an object e.g. size, shape, color, texture, weight, use, etc
They can think about actions before taking them to solve problems.