20th Century Language
20th Century Language
Langauge features to look out for...
Spread of s - genitive to non-human nouns
Tendency to regularise irregular verbs
Relative clauses, using 'that'
Pronouns are changing due to gender roles changing e.g. 'they' instead of 'she'
Elimination of 'shall' as a future marker in the the first pronoun
Decline of 'whom'
Increasing use of 'less' instead of fewer with countable nouns
More adverbial constructions than adjectivial
Development of new auxiliary - uses of certain lexical verbs
Omission of the definite article in certain environments
Einar Haughen - model of the process of standardisation
Selection: process of choosing one of the many different dialects (whether regional, class or situational) - development of overt prestige and powerful groups
Elaboration: Some words/grammar rules are elaborated in order to create meanings that are needed - Latin (16th C), neologisms e.g. due to technology
Codification: Rules of grammar are officially set down in texts, dictionaries etc. Standard English - set
Acceptance: Population accepts the selection made
Milroy and Milroy (1999) - believes standardisation of language is just an ideology and concept with no reality.
Later... Herring (2007) - Users of technology allow elaboration, words taking new meanings e.g. unfriended, urban dictionary (modern day slang)
Noah Webster (1840) - American rules.
Replacing 'our' with 'or' e.g. armor, Replacing 're' with 'er' e.g. theater, Replacing 'ise' with 'ize' e.g. standardization
Dwight Bollinger (1980) - Contemporary elaboration - increased use of euphemism in advertising. Euphemisms are good - 'funsize' rather than 'small'. Dysphemisms are bad - 'dead bodies' instead of 'casualities'
David Crystal - abbreviations, use of pictures, initialisms, constonants have a higher worth
War, Educartion, Transportation, Broadcasting, Culture, Global communication, rise in urbanisation, change in gender roles, development in psycholgy - all influenced English Language
Word formations: Abbreviations, Eponym, Affixation, Compounding, Acronym/ Initialisms, Back formaion, Blending, Clipping, Coinage