Citizenship - Identity. How Socially Diverse is Britain
Citizenship - Identity. How Socially Diverse is Britain
People can be forced to migrate to another area because of famine caused by crop failure or conflict. They may have no other option but to move in order to find food and water
People flee a place because of conflict
Flooding, drought, an earthquake or a tsunami can all force people to have to move out of an area and migrate somewhere safer.
Persecution or Oppression
People may be forced to migrate as they are persecuted or oppressed on the basis of religion, political affiliation or sexuality
People move to a place that provides more job opportunities and higher income. It is often that moving away is the only way to find employment. Those emigrating for work tend to be young, male, in good health, post-education and either single or with young families at home.
People may move to a place with a better standard of living so they have a better quality of life. This includes better healthcare, better education, and sometimes a better climate.
Some students look at gaining qualifications at universities abroad.
Some people move to be closer to family members or to be nearer to places of cultural or religious significance.
Migration is the term used to describe the movement of people from one place to another; this may involve moving within a country or across national borders.
Migration has became an increasingly prominent topic as countries attempt to control their population numbers. Those already living within a country sometimes feel anxious about immigration. People feel migrants put stress on their services, decline their standard of living and change the culture of their country. This often causes conflict.
The UK government defines long-term migration as lasting more than one year. Even though the process of emigrating between EU countries is simple, immigration from non-EU countries to the UK is much more complex.
Factors affecting emigration from the UK are often linked ti foreign governments trying to recruit workers to make up for skills shortages. Australia and New Zealand's government have both encouraged workers from the UK to emigrate there by offering incentives of free travel and help with housings costs.
Issues related to Multiculturalism
There are many contemporary issues related to living in a multicultural society, often in areas that are considered to have a significant increase in immigration.
Resentment over migrant workers getting jobs instead of local residents.
Lack of ethnic integration due to cultural differences, for example different food and language.
Increases in race-related crime and violence
Non-English speaking migrants working long hours in factories with mainly other non-English speaking workers. This makes it difficult for non-English speaking migrants to fit into their local community.
Policing s multicultural society - the need for interpreters, and the differences between what is considered illegal in one country but legal in another, e.g. the difference in drink driving limits.
Trends and Patterns in UK Migration since 1945
The UK has a long history of immigration, many argue its the mixture of nationalities and cultures which have been introduced over time which has shaped Britain to create its unique identity.
The UK has a long history of colonial activity so now has links to many countries. This has had an effect on migration to the UK since 1945 as people in these countries have been able to claim British citizenship.
The Second World War had a dramatic effect on migration across the world and saw those who had helped in the war effort being offered British Citizenship.
After the Second World War, the UK needed to add to its workforce as so many people had been killed or injured. The UK actively recruited people from outside its borders.
Other events that have affected migration since 1945 are:
The declaration of Indian Independence in 1947, when many people were allowed to move to Britain.
European Union expansion in 2004 meant an increasing number of EU citizens have had easier movement around the EU and into the UK.
England is the most ethnically diverse nation within the UK, this is mainly because the UK has London.
London has a huge range of jobs, both highly and low skilled. Many companies have their national headquarters in London.
It is the centre of commerce, the 'City of London' is the financial centre of Europe.
It has a busy dock and has historically been the initial destination of immigrants to Britain.
It consists of many more urban areas than any other city in the UK. Urban areas are much more ethnically diverse than rural areas as urban areas offer a greater chance of employment and education.
Employment has traditionally drawn migrants to the UK. The types of employment they undertake tends to dictate ethnic diversity in certain areas.
For Example, the Pakistani community has tended to settle in areas with textiles industries. e.g. Manchester, Yorkshire and Leeds.
Social Diversity is the variety and differences in the identities of people. It describes diversity in the terms of social class, gender, age and religion.
It is the diversity within society in terms of ethnicity that is crucial to the study of multiculturalism. It is a generalisation to assume that every individual from a particular ethnic group is the same. There is further diversity within ethnic groups in terms of income, religion, gender, etc.
Immigration to the UK
Too much immigration increases population numbers too quickly which then leads to problems with resources and services.
Migrants can be seen as a drain on public services such as the education system and the NHS.
Migrant workers can be seen to 'take' jobs from British workers.
Immigration to the UK
Although there are concerns about immigrants raising the overall population too rapidly, many only stay for a short time then leave.
Net Migration is the key indicator of population increase.
Host governments do not have to pay for the education and training of skilled migrants. Also, most migrant workers are young and of good health.
Home Office reports indicate that immigrants contribute more in taxes than they receive in services.
Skill shortages may be filled by migrant workers. Migrants may be attractive to employers as they may be willing to work for longer hours with lower wage demands,
Employers often report that migrant workers are more reliable and are less likely to leave the job in the short-term. As migrant workers often live in temporary accommodation, they're more likely to move around the country and fill job vacancies
Multicultural Model Vs Assimilation Model
Characterised by diversity of different cultural backgrounds. All cultures are celebrated
Individuals and groups have clear identities based on their cultural and ethnic backgrounds. No one culture is considered dominant
Modern Britain is described as 'multicultural' and anti-discrimination laws exist to protect cultural diversity.
Differences in culture, ethnicity and belief are encouraged and shared understanding of one another exists.
Individual and group diversity exist but are assimilated (absorbed) into a collective national identity
National identity takes precedence over individual identity; the cultural and ethnic backgrounds of immigrants become less important
Said to have existed in Britain after the Second World War.
Each generation assimilates to become more like the destination country and less related to the country of origin.
Stereotyping and Labelling
Stereotyping gives the impression that all members of a certain group behave in the same way. It often exaggerates an element of a groups identity above all other elements.
Labelling is giving individuals or groups a 'tag' or name. Such labels often reflect media or public perception but this is not necessarily the reality. Some labels may be positive, but some may be negative and damaging.