A less legalistic and more political approach to rights is the one introduced by Marshall, who defines citizenship in terms of individual rights. He divides citizen- ship into three parts. The first part is based on civil rights, i.e. the rights necessary for individual freedom, including the rights to own property and to legal justice. The second part is based on political rights, epitomized by democracy. And the third part, of particular interest in our context, is based on social rights, i.e. "the right to share to the full in the social heritage and to live the life of a civilized being according to standards prevailing in the society" (Marshall, 1964: 71-72, cit. 72).
Interestingly enough, Marshall takes housing to illustrate the relations between civil and social rights. While civil rights are claims that must be met by the state in each individual case, social rights are obligations of the state towards society as a whole. In housing the individual legal rights that protect the tenure of existing dwellings must be distinguished from citizens' legitimate expectation of a home fit for a family to live in. When it comes to social rights, individual claims must be subordinated to the general programme of social advance, in particular since housing policies cover the general conditions of life of a whole community (Marshall, 1964: 105-106)
...an acceptable economic standard of living, including the right to education and medical care—and the right to decent housing—is a necessary condition of full membership of the community (Marshall, 1964: 70; cf. Miller, 1978).