Managing Manufacturing, Services and Creating Human Resource Advantage…
Managing Manufacturing, Services and Creating Human
Planning and Designing Operations Systems
Before a company can make a product, it must decide what it will produce for what
group of customers, what processes it will use to make the products, and what
facilities it needs for production.
Planning the Product
Designing the Operations Processes
is making identical, interchangeable components or even
is the creation of an item in self-contained units, or
modules, which can be combined or interchanged to create different
is making products to meet a particular customer’s needs or
is making products to meet the needs and wants of
a large number of individual customers
Routing and Scheduling
is the sequence of operations through which the product must pass.
is the process of assigning work to be done to departments or
even specific machines or persons.
The Nature of Operations Management
Operations management (OM)
refers to the development and administration of
the activities involved in transforming resources into goods and services.
Production and manufacturing
refer to the physical activities and processes
used in making tangible goods and services
describe the activities—including production—involved in
producing both tangible and intangible products.
The Transformation Process
are resources such as labor, money, materials, and energy.
are goods, services, and ideas.
Operations Management in Service Businesses
Different types of transformation processes take place in organizations that
Consumption of Outputs
Uniformity of Inputs
Uniformity of Output
Measurement of Productivity
Most organizations are a combination of manufacturer and service provider, with
both tangible and intangible qualities embodied in what they produce.
Historical Perspectives on Employee Motivation
According to the
of motivation, money is the sole motivator for
Nature of Human Relations
is the study of individual and group behavior in organizational
settings; it is concerned with what motivates employees to perform their jobs.
is an inner drive that directs behavior toward goals
is an employee’s attitude toward his or her job, employer, and colleagues.
Perceptions of rewards
is the personal satisfaction and enjoyment you feel from
attaining a goal.
is the benefit or recognition you receive from
Strategies for Motivating Employees
involves changing behavior and encouraging appropriate
actions by relating the consequences to the behavior itself
allows employees to move from one job to another to relieve the
boredom associated with specialization.
involves adding tasks to a job instead of treating each task as a
involves incorporating motivational factors such as opportunity
for achievement, recognition, responsibility, and advancement into a job.
is a program that allows employees to choose their starting and
ending times as long as they are at work during a specified core period.
is a four-day (or shorter) period in which an
employee works 40 hours.
occurs when two people do one job
Theories of Employee Motivation
Psychologist Victor Vroom’s
assumes that motivation
depends not only on how much a person wants something but on the person’s
perception of how likely he or she is to get it.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
relate to the work setting rather than the content of the
work and include adequate wages, comfortable working conditions, fair
relate to the content of the work and include
achievement, recognition, the work itself, involvement, responsibility, and
advancement. They promote higher levels of performance.
, how much people are willing to contribute to an
organization depends on their assessment of the fairness, or equity, of the
rewards they will receive in exchange.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Psychologist Abraham Maslow arranged humans’ five basic needs into
in the order in which people strive to satisfy them
are the first to be satisfied and include the needs for the
essentials of life—water, food, shelter, and clothing.
relate to protecting oneself from physical and economic
are the needs for love, companionship, and friendship—the
desire for acceptance from others.
relate to the desire for respect—both self-respect and respect
from others. Competition is a form of esteem that motivates people to be
is the desire to be the best one can be.
is a management philosophy that stresses employee participation in all
aspects of company decision making.
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
managers assume that workers generally dislike work and must be
forced to do their jobs.
assumes that workers like to work and will normally seek out
responsibility to satisfy their social, esteem, and self-actualization needs