Distinction between Cultural Relativism & Ethical Relativism (Sir.…
Distinction between Cultural Relativism & Ethical Relativism
The indisputable fact cultural differences regarding moral norms exist both from the nation and in the same nation over time.
It is simply an anthropological theses acknowledging that moral rules differ from society to society ( a descriptive statement of observed anthropologica facts.)
a philosophical thesis, stating a theory about morality- namely there is no universal objective moral priciples binding on all people every where and at all time.
The assertion by Protagoras
Man is the measure of all things provides an early philosophical Precursor relativism
The Greek historian Herodotus
Each society regards its own belief system and way of doing things as the best, in contrast to that of others.
many ancient philosophers
The idea of an absolute standard of morality
Relativists maintain that all moral judgments have their origins either in societal or in individual standards, and that no single objective standard exists by which one can assess the truth of a moral proposition.
Relativists maintain that all moral judgments have their origins either in societal or in individual standards, and that no single objective standard exists by which one can assess the truth of a moral proposition
• Different societies have different moral codes.
• no objective standard that can be used to judge one societal code better than another.
• The moral code of our own society has no special status; it is merely one among many.
• no “universal truth” in ethics—that is, there are no moral truths that hold for all people at all times.
• The moral code of a society determines what is right within that society.
• It is mere arrogance for us to try to judge the conduct of other people. We should adopt an attitude of tolerance toward the practices of other cultures
Sir. Bernard Williams ( English Philosopher)
Relativists: "good", "bad", "right", and "wrong" do not stand subject to universal truth conditions, but only to societal convention and personal preference
Our ethical sentiments are a result of our cultural conditioning
Many of our cultural practices are merely peculiar to our society. (E.g. Callatians)
Anthropologist: Ruth Benedict (1887-1948)
(Book Patterns of Cultures (1935).
"Socially approved customs" nothing more, nothing less. No universal values to valueate the moral of any culture.
Moral values of Western Europe and America were morally superior to more primitive, so obligation of Western culture to "educate" the rest of the world
As being culturally arrogant, socially destructive, and factually inaccurate to demonstrate this through anthropological research and analysis.
every culture uses its own unique cultural “recipe” to create its social structure and maintain its community
it not possible to say that one recipe is “better” than another—they simply represent different ways people use to organize themselves into social groups
Sir Bernard William
morality differs in every society and is convenient term for socially approved habits
Mankind has always preferred to say, “It is morally good,” rather than “It is habitual,” But historically the two phrases are synonymous.(Ruth Benedict: Anthropology and the abnormal)
moral values are simply the customs– the approved ways of thinking and behaving—that each culture has determined to be “right.” Trying to find additional meaning in the concept of “moral values” is a lost cause.(Philosopher’s Way: John Chaffee)
The vast majority of the individuals in any group are shaped to the fashion of that culture. In other words, most individuals are plastic to the molding force of the society into which they are born.”
one’s moral and religious beliefs are contingent on one’s specific cultural experience, there can be no universal moral values that apply to all cultures
Morality ≠ Good
Morality = Habit Dictated by One’s Culture.
We imbibe our morality form the mores, rituals, and folkways of our community, which we internalize. We are simply culturally determined beings. Morality are the outcomes of our social history.
Conclusion : (Test)
no absolute or objective moral standard binding on all people— Cultural relativism plus the dependency thesis yields ethical relativism in its classic form… If there are different moral principles from culture to culture and if all morality is rooted in culture, then it follows that no universal moral principles are valid for all cultures and all people at all times. (i.e. Ethical Relativism)