Excretory System and Osmoregulation
Label a diagram of the kidney
Explain a diagram of a glomerulus and associated nephron to show the function of each part.
Explain the process of ultrafiltration
the reabsorption of glucose, water and salts in the proximal convoluted tubule, including the roles of microvilli, osmosis and active transport.
the roles of the loop of Henle, medulla, collecting duct and ADH in maintaining the water balance of the blood.
the differences in the concentration of proteins, glucose and urea between blood plasma, glomerular filtrate and urine.
Blood and Immunity
the release of clotting factors from platelets and damaged cells resulting in the formation of thrombin. Thrombin catalyses the conversion of soluble fibrinogen into the fibrous protein fibrin, which captures blood cells.
the process of blood clotting
active and passive immunity
how: nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, antibodies, urea and heat are transported by the blood
antibody production. (macrophages and activation of helper T-cells leading to activation of B-cells which divide to form clones of antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory cells)
blood is composed of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leucocytes; phagocytes and lymphocytes) and platelets.
the principle of vaccination. E.g. attenuated virus and inactivated toxins
Diet and Nutrition
label a diagram of the digestive system
the function of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine in digestion, absorption and reabsorption
the main enzymes in the digestive system in terms of where they are produced and their optimum conditions
how the structure of the villus is related to its role in absorption and transport of the products of digestion
the need for enzymes in digestion.
the function of liver, pancreas and gall bladder. Describe bile and its action.
why digestion of large food molecules is essential.
Respiratory and Circulatory System
structure of the heart showing the four chambers, explain the action of the heart, including blood vessels, valves and the route of blood through the heart.
how gas exchange occurs in the lungs
Describe the control of the heartbeat in terms of muscle contraction being myogenic, the role of the pacemaker, nerves, the medulla of the brain and adrenaline
outline the mechanism of breathing
the relationship between the structure and function of arteries, capillaries and veins.
the difference between respiration and breathing
Outline the role of HCG in early pregnancy
Describe early embryo development up to the implantation of the blastocyst.
Outline the processes involved in oogenesis within the ovary, the two divisions of meiosis, the unequal division of cytoplasm and the degeneration of polar body
how the structure and functions of the placenta, including its hormonal role in secretion of oestrogen and progesterone, maintain pregnancy.
Outline the processes involved in spermatogenesis within the testis, the two divisions of meiosis and cell differentiation.
the foetus is supported and protected by the amniotic sac and amniotic fluid, list the materials that are exchanged between the maternal and foetal blood in the placenta.
Muscles and Movement
function of the human elbow joint, including cartilage, synovial fluid, joint capsule, named bones and antagonistic muscles (biceps and triceps).
the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human movement.