Systems of Government
The executive can govern only as long as it retains the confidence of the assembly
Fusion of legislative and executive power
Head of the state vs Head of the government
Examples: Sweden, UK, Germany, Japan.
President alongside with a Prime Minister and cabinet
Prime Minister belongs to the legislative
Division of power: the President often govern foreign policies and Prime Minister domestic policies
Examples: France, Russia, Taiwan.
The leninist state
”Democratic” centralism: representatives in the party and the legislative assembly should be elected
The government is subordinate to the ruling party
Examples: China, North Korea, Soviet Union.
Head of the government aswell as the head of the state
The assemblies are formally independent from one and another and separately elected
Examples: US, Brazil, the Philippines.
Regimes of the contemporary world
Equality in voting
Gaining enlightened understanding
Exercising final control over the agenda
Inclusion of adults
Representative democracy and a capitalist economic organization
Elections must be competitive, fair, and regular—the political equality of citizens is recognized
Example: US, Canada, U.K., Norway, Finland, Sweden, Australia, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan.
Forbids individual freedom and that seeks to subordinate all aspects of the individual’s life to the authority of the government.
Totalitarianism is characterized by strong central rule that attempts to control and direct all aspects of individual life through coercion and repression.
Example: Nazi Germany, USSR (under Stalin), China (under Mao), North Korea
Social institutions and organizations are discouraged and suppressed
Authoritarianism, principle of blind submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action.
Limited or no freedom to create opposition political parties
Authoritarianism stands in contrast to democracy.
Authoritarian governments usually have no highly developed guiding ideology
Examples: Contemporary China, Saudi Arabia, Thailand (under military rule), Hong Kong (moving towards this direction?)
Illiberal Democracy/Electoral Democracy
Governments may be elected in elections and yet routinely violate their citizens’ basic rights.
Typically, it is minority groups that suffers of illiberal policies and practices and face censorship, persecution, or wrongful imprisonment.
The electoral system is designed to favor the ruling elites
Corruption, voter fraud, voter intimidation
Examples: Russia, Turkey, Iran, Singapore.
The core functions of government
To make law (legislation)
Implement law (execution)
Interpret law (adjudication)