eferred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company, or sometimes known as the Dutch East Indies Company, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. A pioneering early model of the multinational corporation in its modern sense, the company is also often considered to be the world's first true transnational corporation.[note 5] In the early 1600s, the VOC became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public.[note 6] In other words, the VOC was the world's first formally listed public company,[note 7] because it was the first corporation to be ever actually listed on an official (formal) stock exchange.[note 8] As the first historical model of the quasi-fictional concept of the megacorporation, the VOC possessed quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, and establish colonies.