Napoleon Forges an Empire
Napoleon Forges an Empire
The French Empire
During the first decade of the 1800's, Napoleon's victories had given him mastery over most of Europe.
By 1812, the only areas of Europe free from Napoleon's control were Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire.
Napoleon also controlled numerous supposedly independent countries.
These included Spain, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and a number of German kingdoms in Central Europe.
The rulers of these countries were Napoleon's puppets; some in fact, were members of his family.
Furthermore, the powerful countries of Russia, Prussia, and Austria were loosely attached to Napoleon's control, they were easily manipulated by threats of military action.
The French Empire was huge but unstable.
Napoleon was bale to maintain it at its greatest extent for only five years - from 1807 to 1812.
Then it quickly fell to pieces.
It's sudden collapse was caused in part by Napoleon's actions.
How long did Napoleon's empire remain at its peak?
The Battle of Trafalgar
In his drive for a European empire, Napoleon lost one major battle, the Battle of Trafalgar.
This naval defeat, however, was more important than all of his victories on land.
The battle took place in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain.
The British commander, Horatio Nelson, was as brilliant in warfare at sea as Napoleon was in warfare on land.
In a bold maneuver, he split the larger French fleet, capturing many ships.
The destruction of the French fleet had two major results.
First, it ensured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years.
Second, it forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain.
He had to look for another way to control his powerful enemy across the English Channel. Eventually, Napoleon extravagant to crush Britain would lead to his own undoing.
Who was Horatio Nelson
What is the Battle of Trafalgar?
The Battle of Trafalgar
How did the Battle of Trafalgar show the importance of Naval power?
At sea, Lord Nelson and the Royal Navy consistently thwarted Napoleon Bonaparte, who led France to preeminence on the European mainland. Nelson's last and greatest victory against the French was the Battle of Trafalgar, which began after Nelson caught sight of a Franco-Spanish force of 33 ships.
Napoleon was not content simply to be master of France.
He wanted to control the rest of Europe and to reassert French power in the Americas.
He envisions his western empire including Louisiana, Florida, French Guiana, and the French West Indies. He knew that the key to his area was the sugar-producing colony of Saint Dominque (now called Haiti) on the island of Hispaniola.
Loss American Territories
In 1789, when the ideas of the Revolution reached the planters in Saint Dominque, they demanded that the National Assembly give the same privileges as the people of France.
Eventually, enslaved Africans in the colony demanded their rights too - in other words, their freedom.
A civil war erupted, and enslaved Africans under the leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture seized control of the colony.
In 1801, Napoleon decided to take back the colony and restore its productive sugar industry.
However, the French forces were devastated by disease. And the rebels proved to be fierce fighters.
After the failure of the expedition to Saint Domingue, Napoleon decided to cut his losses in the Americas.
He offered to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to the United States, and in 1803 President Jefferson's administration agreed to purchase the land for $15 million.
Napoleon saw a twofold benefit to the sale.
2 more items...
What all was included in the Louisiana Territory?
How did L'Overture's revolution benefit the United States?
It prompted Napoleon to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States.
Having abandoned his imperial ambitious in New World, Napoleon turned his attention to Europe.
He had already annexed the Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy to France and set up a puppet government in Switzerland.
Now he looked to expand his influence further. Fearful of his ambitions the British persuaded Russia, Austria, and Sweden to join them against France.
Napoleon met this challenge with his usual boldness.
In a series of brilliant battles, he crushed the opposition.
The commanders of the enemy armies could never predict his next move and often took heavy losses.
After the Cattle of Austerlitz in 1805, Napoleon issued a proclamation expressing his pride in his troops:
In time, Napoleon's battlefield successes forced the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia to sign peace treaties. These successes also enabled him to build the large European empire since that of the Romans. France's only major enemy left undefeated was the great naval power, Britain.
Napoleon rules France
Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica. When he was 9 he was sent to a military school.
At the age of 16 he finished school and became a lieutenant in the artillery. When the Revolution broke out, Napoleon joined the army of the new government.
Hero of the Hour
In October 1795, fate handed the young officer a chance for glory. When royalist rebels marched on the National Convention, a government official told Napoleon to defend the delegates.
Napoleon and his gunners greeted the thousands of royalists with a cannonade. Within minutes, the attackers fled in panic and confusion.
Napoleon Bonaparte became the hero of the hour and was hailed throughout Paris as the savior of the French republic.
Compare Napoleon's actions in October 1795 and November 1799
Protected stability of France both times, first by defending government, then by overturning it.
In 1796, the Directory appointed Napoleon to lead a French army against the forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Crossing the Alps, the young general swept into Italy and won a series of remarkable victories.
Next, in an attempt to protect French trade interests and to disrupt British trade with India, Napoleon led an expedition to Egypt. But he was unable to repeat the successes he had achieved in Europe.
His army was pinned down in Egypt, and the British admiral Horatio Nelson defeated his naval forces.
What evidence shows that Napoleon cared about his image?
He made sure that the newspapers did not report on his losses.
Napoleon's battles in Egypt
In its place, they established a group of three consuls, one of whom was Napoleon. Napoleon quickly took the title of first consul and assumed the powers of a dictator.
A sudden seizure of power like Napoleon's is known as a coup, from the French phrase coup d´état, or "blow to the state."
At the time of Napoleon’s coup, France was still at war. In 1799, Britain, Austria, and Russia joined forces with one goal in mind, to drive Napoleon from power.
Once again, Napoleon rode from Paris at the head of his troops. Eventually, as a result of war and diplomacy, all three nations signed peace agreements with France.
By 1802, Europe was at peace for the first time in ten years. Napoleon was free to focus his energies on restoring order in France.
Napoleon restores peace
By 1799, the Directory had lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people. When Napoleon returned from Egypt, his friends urged him to seize political power.
Napoleon took action in early November 1799. His troops surrounded the national legislature and drove out most of its members. The remaining lawmakers voted to dissolve the Directory.
Napoleon rules france
At first Napoleon pretended to be the constitutionally chosen leader of a free republic.
In 1800 a Plebiscite or vote of people was held to approve a new constitution.
Rule of France
Desperate for strong leadership the people voted overwhelmingly in favor of the constitution this gave all real power to Napoleon as first council
Napoleon crowned as emperor
in 1804 Napoleon decided to make himself emperor and the French voter supported him.
He strengthened it by improving the tax collection system, starting lycees and a national banking system, and restricting freedoms of speech and the press.
In general did Napoleon make the French government stronger or weaker?
On December 2, 1804, dressed in a splendid robe of purple velvet,
Napoleon walked down the long aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. .
Provided opportunity to males of all classes.
What made the admission policies of the Lychees significant?
The pope waited for him with glittering crown.as thousands watched the new emperor took the crown from the pope and placed it on his own head.
Then Napoleon signaled that he was more powerful than the Church
Restoring oreder at home
Napoleon did not try to return the nation to the days of Louis XVI. Rather he kept many of the changes that had come with the revolution.
In general he supported laws that would both strengthen the central government and achieve some of the goals of the revolution.
his first taks was to get the economy on a solid footing.
Many clergy and peasants disliked the restrictions on the church started during the Revolution.
What caused Napoleon to reach an agreement with the pope?
Napoleon set up an efficient method of tac collection and established a national banking system.
in addition to ensure the government a steady supply of tax money.