New Media and Digital Culture
New Media and Digital Culture
What is New Media?
The process whereby new technologies are accommodated by existing media and communication industries and cultures.
The "synthesis of the two histories" of historical communication technologies and new media.
Internet, websites, computer multimedia, computer games, CD-ROMS, and DVDs.
"a way of thinking about the relationship that new media has to old media."
On-demand access to content anytime, anywhere, on any digital device, as well as interactive feedback, creative participation and community formation around the media content.
"Democratization" of the creation, publishing, distribution and consumption of media content.
Any type of technology allowing you to have immediate access to information as well as a platform that allows people to interact, share ideas, and provide feedback with one another, forming an online community.
Not real-time, email, discussion, forum, contributions are "considered more thoughtful compared to synchronous communication"
Real-time, Utilizes videoconferencing technology such as Adobe Connect, WebEx, etc., Increases social presence, creates social and community membership.
Enhancing teaching and learning quality, Accommodating digital natives, Increasing student flexibility, Developing 21st century skills, Improving the cost of higher education
Massively Open Online Courses (MOOC)
Free to students
Courses are not for academic credit
Courses are scalable to an unlimited size
Film Theory and Criticism
Four Levels of Meaning
Most basic analysis. Describes things that happen in the plot.
Moral of the story. Obvious events/actions in the film.
Less obvious. An inference into the growth, change of characters in the film.
Complete interpretation about the broader context in society. Relates film to prevalent themes in culture.
Examines the narrative structure and form of the film (characters, plot, development, mise-en-scene). Discusses the effects of techniques (camera angle, cinematography, editing, sound) on the viewer.
How a film represents reality. Discusses cinematic techniques and how they represnet the reality the filmmaker wants the audience to experience (insanity, love, panic, etc.)
Considers the film as part of a broader context. The particular time, place in society that influenced this film. Includes sub-criticisms such as Feminist, Marxist, or Dualist.
Angle of view
Depicts subjects as small and insignificant
Depicts subject as powerful
Rear View (Back to camera)
Creates a sense of exploration
Direct View (Gaze)
Depth of Field (Deep Focus)
Distant objects are in focus
High contrast may suggest high contrast between themes.
Depth of Field (Shallow Focus)
Close objects are in focus.
Ratio of dark to light. Creates a dramatic effect.
Forms of Gaze
The spectator viewing the text
Character's gaze upon another character/object in the text.
Character address the viewer
Look of the Camera
The film director's gaze
Directions of Gaze
Attention directed towards an object
Attention directed towards oneself
Attention directed towards other people
attention directed towards the reader/camera/viewer
attention directed towards middle distance
attention directed towards something not discernable
Attention of those depicted is directed at each other
Attention of those directed towards different things
Those depicted are looking at the same object
The attention of one person is on the other, whose attention is elsewhere.
Angle of View
Approach to considering the effects of media 1. What does it (the medium or technology) extend? 2. What does it make obsolete? 3. What is retrieved? 4. What does the technology reverse into if it is over-extended?
"The Medium is the Message"
New media can be beneficial but there is also a dancer that comes with over-extending technology.
Term to describe how "experiences with any medium are conditioned by those media with which we are already familiar."
Media theorist that described media technologies as "extensions of man".
Social Shaping of Technology
Proposes that anything that makes a difference is an "actor" and completely rejects technological determinism.
Social construction of technology
Alternative view to technological determinism. Argues that technological innovation is a "social product".
Suggest that a particular communication technology is the sole cause in the psychological influences such as social organization and development.
Suggests that technology is an enabling factor that has potential to have psychological consequences but it is ultimately whether that technology is adopted or not.
The idea that new technologies are "self-generating" and are invented in an independent sphere that then create new societies.
The Internet Debate
Highlights the positive impact the Internet has had in stimulating our cognitive surplus.
Expresses the importance the Internet has in providing a platform for peer review.
Argues that the Internet restores reading and writing into daily lives and that open source software will stimulate new and good ideas that will survive into the future.
The abundance of information on the Internet allows for an increase in throwaway material but experimentation is necessary in development.
People choose to participate and engage in social media rather than engage in passive media.
Mastering complex concepts is only possible when we pay deep attention to a new piece of information.
Argues that teh abundance of information leads to the division of attention.
The richness of our thoughts will decrease as well as memory and sustained concentration.
Dunning-Kruger effect: states that those most lacking in knowledge and skills are least able to appreciate that lack.
A minimal degree of knowledge and experience in the area about which you are ignorant is necessary.
Believes that the brain realizes that there is less of a need to remember information that can be readily retrieved which leads to the "google effect"; the automatic forgetting of information that can be found online.
Video Games and Violence
Argues that there are significant effects of sustained exposure of violent media on children.
Believes that putting oneself in a situation beyond moral limits, allows one to see where those limits lie.
Questions whether our actions in a virtual world tantamount to imagining things that we could do in real life but never would or if we are merely behaving as we would in real life if there were no consequences for our actions.
Effects of sustained exposure
Strong bonds between family and community members
Weaker bonds, acquaintances
Connection to those at differing levels of power
What makes a network?
Small worlds, strength of weak ties, hubs and connectors, power laws of distribution
The ability to identify the authenticity of the overflow of information on the internet as well as keeping out own information private and used appropriately.
"It is about filtering data for value, creating for ourselves a time for deep absorption, and setting our machines to be on call when we need them but not to intrude on our privacy" (Rumsey 141).
"Connected, but Alone" Sherry Turkle
Emphasizes the troubles that may come with technology including our ability to relate to each other and ourselves as well as our capacity for self-reflection.
Conversation has turned into connection. Connection can lead to isolation if we do not cultivate the capacity for solitude.
Rules, Valorisation of outcomes, variable, negotiable consequences, player effort, player-attached outcome
Refers to the use of game mechanics in non-game contexts such as education.
Mobile games, games within social media, handheld games, arcade games, console games, PC-based games
The point at which artificial intelligence becomes autonomous and events become "unpredictable or even unfathomable to human intelligence."
The number of transistors in a circuit doubles every two years. Points out that the capital cost to produce semiconductors also increases exponentially over time.
The Social Debate
Believes that the time and effort put into virtual worlds limits the time to connect and communicate on a deeper level in our real world and that people feel a constant need to check in with virtual worlds and ignore the present.
Believes that communication technologies have made relationships more persistent and pervasive.
Emphasizes that technology should be tools that extend our bodies while arguing that computers are doing the exact opposite in today's society.
Presents the idea of natural machines and their capability of using principles of neuroscience in order to extend human senses.
A computer-generated environment that lets you experience a different reality.
Three C's of computing
Communication, Computing, Content
Core principles of Wikinomics
Peering, Sharing, Openness, Acting Globally
The Digital Divide
Inequity in access to computers and internet, but it also refers to the ability to use these technologies to participate in public life.
The equation [n x (n-1) = n2 - n] means that membership in a network has a value to the user but is more valuable to other users.
A property of a project that determines the extent to which it can be broken down into smaller components. A nuclear plant has low modularity, whereas Wikipedia has high modularity.
Proposed the "law of accelerating return"
The rate of technological change increases exponentially.
Kranzberg's First Law
"Technology is either good, nor bad, nor is it neutral."
"none of us can know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills."