Concept Map IV: Corrections (Jail (Jails hold those awaiting trial,…
Concept Map IV: Corrections
Revocation of Parole:
technical violation (two-step revocation process), use of intermediate sanctions
Challenges for Parole
: few belongings, small amounts of money, employment, and housing
Types of release
: completes maximum court sentence.
: maximum minus good time, or when a percentage of time has been completed.
: parole board decision to release to parole supervision with intermediate sentencing states
Origins of parole
: Maconochie created British penal colonies in Tazmania. Includes steps to liberty which are strict imprisonment, labor on chain gang, limied freedom, ticket of leave, and finally full restoration of liberty
: conditional release of an offender from incarceration, but not from legal counsel. Focuses on grace, contract, and custody
Jails hold those awaiting trial, executes sentences of misdemeanors, housed for both state and federal. Holds more unconvicted than convicted.
Common Issues of jails
: poor conditions, lack of programming and services, rates of suicide,
: Proconier v. Martinez (1974): mail censorship only with demonstration of copelling government interest
Hudson v. Palmer (1984)
: cell search an confiscation of items with out suspicion or wrongdoing or jurisdiction.
Bell v. Wolfish (1979)
: body searches permissible to fit institutional need, not for intent to degrade
: unnecessarily cruel punishments, punishment shocks civilized society.
Wolft v. McDonnell (1974)
: due process, basic procedural rights in disciplinary hearing.
: daily check-ins, often require programming
Types of Intermediate Sanctions:
: less costly than other forms of intermediate sanctions, involves more community based labor
: requires phone service, costly to offender
Intense supervision probation
: probation and intitutional diversion
Intermediate Sanctions by institutions & Community:
includes boot camp, shock incarceration, focuses on youth offenders
: less expensive than incarceration, offenses are not as serious
Centralized v. decentralized administration
: combined with parole, probation officers active in cases, writes presentence reports, attends court
Types of consequences
: fines, restiution, forfeiture