Science and Computing Tutorial ( (Computational thinking (CT) (What is…
Science and Computing Tutorial
Computational thinking (CT)
What is this?
Described as use of abstraction, automation and analysis in problem solving 
Powerpoint online 
Focusses on process of abstraction
measures of good abstraction are efficiency, correctness, ilities
Sample classes of Computational abstractions
Algorithms: e.g. mergesort, binary search, string matching, clustering
Data Structures: e.g. sequences, tables, trees, graphs, networks
State Machines: e.g. finite automata, Turing machines
Languages: e.g. regular expressions, Java
proficiency in CT helps with systematic and efficient info processing tasks.
CT draw on concepts fundamental to computer science 
extends previous thinking skills as it shares elements with things like algorithmic thinking, engineering thinking and mathematical thinking 
Computational thinking is a way of solving problems, designing systems, and understanding human behavior that draws on concepts fundamental to computer science. To flourish in today's world, computational thinking has to be a fundamental part of the way people think and understand the world. 
National Curriculum states that: A high
-quality computing education equips pupils to use computational thinking and
creativity to understand and change the world 
The national curriculum for computing aims to ensure that all pupils:
can understand and apply the fundamental principles and concepts of computer science, including abstraction, logic, algorithms and data representation 
can evaluate and apply information technology, including new or unfamiliar
technologies, analytically to solve problems 
can analyse problems in computational terms, and have repeated pr
of writing computer programs in order to solve such problems 
responsible, competent, confident and creative users of information and
communication technology 
role of programming? Can it be separated from teaching basic computer science? How much programming if any should be involved or required for CT proficiency? 
coding can be very confusing, they already had enough to learn without pushing complicated things like coding down on to it
specific intervention at all levels of government to make it
stand on its own within the K-12 education landscape it will
continue to fade from our schools. This will hurt not only
the field of computing but also all the fields that depend on
innovations that originate in computing. If we are to remain
competitive in the global, high-tech marketplace of the 21st
Century, we must revitalize computer science education in
K–12 and make it part of the core curriculum for all students. 
need to teach children the computational language and tihnkning before hands on
thought processes involved in formulating problems and their solutions & understanding human behavious via drawing on concepts that are fundamental to computer science
CT has been proven to help preschool development in maths, social interactions, emotional respones, visual intelligence, problem solving and language skills.
6 different concepts and 5 approaches 
Tinkering- experimenting & playing
trying things out- vital in learning through play as it is all about experimentation and finding out new things as they go. Tinkering in science could be trial and error, or changing variables in an experiment. Builds perseverance and learning to understand and look at things form other angles instead of just getting to the right answer.
3-5: Role play is key here. Asking a lot of What is...? How...? Why....? questions. Tinker ith digital devices like cameras, pc's remote control toys etc.
5-7 years: continue to tinker in topical role play areas; start tinkering with beebots, probots, scratc etc- working they're way through by playing and testing. Lots of open questions to be asked and challenges to be given
7-11 years: continue tinkering but for a specific purpose -> have a go environment. Share own experiences of tinkering and to try any idea they haave within reason as it nurtures creativity and imaginatory development.
Creating- designing & making
About planning, making and evaluating. With creative work, originality and value are key
3-5 years: creating things- making/doing areas needed so they can junk model, make gifts, draw, paint, build. MAy use simple art software on computer- IMAGINATION, care and possible improvements
5-7 years: using tech to purposefull create, store, manage, organise, change and retrieve digital content and create and debug their own programmes. Ask children to create scripts adnd perfmormance using programmable toys.
7-11 years: select, use and combine a variety of software on a varied amount of digital devices. Lots of 'design, make and evaluate' projects, drawing out the parallels with computational thnking. Plan (abstraction) -> Sourcing materials (decomposition) -> assembling materials to create (algorithm, step by step) -> evaluating (testing)
Errors in algorithms are bugs and process of locating and fixing these is called debugging. Do this in real life every day. 4 steps underpinned by logical reasoning: Predict, find out, work out place went wrong and fix
3-5 years: tinker in role play to figure things out- always finding issues and fixing them so they are debugging- always using logical reasoing to solve problems
7-11 years: use logical reasoning to detect and fix bugs in algorithms and programs- be able to explain what went wrong and how they fixed it. Talk about my lesson plan? debugging develops perseverance as it can be frustrating.
5-7 years: evaluate and fix their own and their peers' work. Use beebots etc to programme a route and then when they come across an issue, they work out where it went wrong and fix the bug. Within science, this could be finding an error within an experiment and fixing it to complete it properly
Preserving- keeping going
need fast and intuitve thinking for complex problems so tolerance is needed- it's okay to be confused providing you learn and develop. This is an important life lesson every student should learn-.
3-5 yeats: quiet areas for puzzles, space for building models but also areas for pupils to put half finsihed things so they can finish them at a later date. Encourage different ways of thinking or alternate approaches- use fables to show about not giving up!
5-7 years: create and debug programs and make it a 'have a go' environment. Logical reasoning and approach to solving problems, using decomposition. Develop strategies for stress/when they're stuck- developing independence aswell.
7-11 years: continue developing their indepedence and logical reasoning to solve issues. Become tolerant of confusion and learn to utilise decompostion to make smaller opbjectives
Collaborating- working together
Group work in all topics as develops social skills
3-5 years: learning about taking turns, waiting in line, explaining things to others.
5-7 years: developing the above but start thinking about constructive criticism and learn how to give it out
7-11 years: developing the above but behing to think about assigning roles in groups (decomposing project). Can set up class wiki on a topic- if you were doing solar system- class into groups and each take a planet and collaborate over wiki.=
Logic- predicting & analysing
explains why something happens- computersare predicatble as if you put in exact same instructions you guarantee the same output. Therefore
can be used to work out exactly what a program or computer will do. 
e.g. child learns that clicking the big buttons bring up a list or doing something that produces a completely predictable response
algorithms-making steps & rules
algorithms- sequence of instructions or set of rules to complete something
can be used cross-curricular
DT- cookery...recipe is an algorithm
English, instruction writing is in algorithm
Science- a method is an algorithm
Maths- mental maths is a simple algorithm
3-5: naturally create opportunities for sequencing like lining up to leave classroom; tidying up or how to play nicely with others.Role play also works as its the sequence of events within given roleplay area
5-7: Simon says, counting to 100, learning the alphabet. Students can creat own instructions of something they do in daily life, like cleaning teeth etc. use decomposition to solve a problem.
7-11: algorithms for multiplying by 10, 100 or 1000; plan for science experiment. Use logical reasoning to debug algorithms and then correct them.
decomposition- breaking down into parts
Breaking down a problem into smaller parts- helps solve bigger, more complex festivals. Set of smaller tasks are less daunting than 1 big one. Use a team to tackle problem, bringing together different skills
labelling lifecycles, or creating instructions is decomposition
3-5 years: create opportunities for exploring detail- e.g. shop roleplay:think about how to set up shop, sell things, price tags, change etc
5-7 years: continue using roleplay to explore concepts. Written forms of decomposition become more common- e.g. labelling parts of the body in science
7-11 years: solving problems by 'decomposing' them into smaller parts; also to design and make a range of systems with set goals. They decompose in greater detail- more levels- use in projecy planning etc.
Patterns- spotting and using similarities
patterns are everywhere- science themes-> weather? notice patterns in weather. Notice patterns within an experiment to figure out where they are going wrong?
identifying patterns means predictions and rules can be made and general problems can be solved- generalisation
3-5 years: environment where pupils can observe and engage wth exploring patterns- whether things sink or not? whether things are smooth or not? This type of exploration is tinkering (see above)
5-7 years: similar to 3-5 but complexity increases. Science themes- classify and group animals/insects/habitats and use these classifications to make predictions
7-11- predicition and testing theories to add depth to understanding. compare and contrast data to bring to a conclusion. Might learn about light and how it travels- stick in the playground and mark it at different times of the day; magnets- opposites attract etc. With computingside- spot repetition in code- talk about efficiency and allow them to experiment.
Abstraction- removing unncessary detail
Simplifying and idetifying important bits, without detail- allows you to controll difficulty. School timetable is an abstraction of standard week- keeps key info but not things like LO's and whats ebign covered.
3-5 years:begin to summarise. Simplistic recounts of events- how they got dressed etc. When counting things, get abstraction of number- understand and formulate an abstraction of 'threeness' if counting up to 3
5-7 years: Continue to explore abstraction. Science they make noyes and charts to identify the most important things i.e. properties of material that make it useful
7-11: still simplifying, summarising an reflecting i.e. after science experiment they note key findings and summarise. Within Computer science they use abstraction when learning about internet, data representation and algorithms. Begin at summary level and layer up.
Evaluation- making judgement
Objective and systematic judgements, things need to meet criteria of things liek efficiency, quality processes and solutions. Things like 2 stars and a wish or What We Did Well
3-5 years: express judgements in comprehensible manner and starting to use logical reasoning with it.
5-7 years: evaluate own work and starrt to write their own goals/success criteria.
7-11 years: more detailed criteria and evaluate own work with less support; also start giving decent peer feedback. It's about questioning work at different stages to ensure its success