Psychology as the Science of Behaviour (Fields of Psychology:…
Psychology as the Science of Behaviour
misconceptions add up and contribute to an increasingly misguided view of how the world operates.
ex. graphology, astrology tea-leaf readers
taking a active role in understanding the world around you rather then merely receiving information
evaluating the validity of something presented to you a a fact.
Who is making the claim? What's the credibility of the source?
What's the evidence, and how good is it?
What is the claim or assertion?
are other explanantions possible? Can i evaluate them?
What's the most appropriate conclusion?
rationalizing considering facts and evidence behind a statement
Fields of Psychology:
systematically gathering and evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions and test beliefs about the natural world
data gained through experience and observation
performed according to a set of rules or conditions
vs. Conventional or "folk" wisdom:
personal experiences, media, conversations
form inaccurate beliefs
Psychologists take concrete
to avoid or minimize biases
to objectively and precisely record people's responses.
ex. brain-imaging devices, video recorders, questionnaires
To analyze their data
controlling experimental behaviour-
to minimize drawing erroneous conclusions
via: controlled variables and a manipulated variable, thus the independent variable also.
Publish their findings
for scrutination by other psychologists
selectively paying attention to information that is consistent with beliefs and downplaying or ignoring information that is inconsistent
Science can't answer what the meaning of life is, beyond scientific measurements
poorly executed studies lead to misleading conclusions
falsifiability (of test)
Basic or Applied
Designed to solve specific practical problems
uses principles discovered
quest of knowledge for its own sake
describing how people behave and to identify the factors that influence a particular behaviour
use operating definitions that can apply to everyone
:Actions and responses we can directly observe
Goals of Psychology:
behaviour and mental processes
and understand causes of the behaviours
/control behaviours through knowledge of causes to enhance human welfare
: internal states and processes, infered from the observables, measurable responses
ie. thoughts and feelings
ex. our thoughts, feelings, and motives
ex. brain processes and genetic influences
past and current physical and social environments to which we are exposed
the relations between mental processes in the brain and the functioning of other bodily systems
psychological and biological levels
mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body
our environment and learning history
experiences influencing our biological capabilities
ex. depriving a rat of physical contact has has negative influence on its brain functioning and biological development
biological and physical sciences
engines of perspective
mind and body are one, mind is not a seperate spirtiual entity