Animal Behavior and Ecology (Animal Behavior (Associative Learning (Any…
Animal Behavior and Ecology
Any learning process in which a new response becomes associated with a particular stimulus.
Ivan Pavlov's use of dogs to demonstrate that a stimulus, such as the ringing of a bell, leads to a reward, or food.
Trial and Error (Operant Conditioning)
Experimentation or investigation in which various methods or means are tried and faulty ones eliminated in order to find the correct solution or to achieve the desired result
Chicks might “learn” to peck before hatching as a result of the rhythmic beating of their heart
Rapid learning that occurs during a brief receptive period, and establishes a long-lasting behavioral response to a specific individual or object, as attachment to parent, offspring, or site.
An example of imprinting is displayed by Ducklings, who think that the first thing that they see when they are born, is their mother.
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated presentations
Example: A turtle draws its head back into its shell when its shell is touched. After being touched repeatedly, the turtle realizes it’s not in danger and no longer hides.
Fixed Action Pattern
A highly stereotyped pattern of behavior that is characteristic of a particular species. Simplest form of instinct.
Some moths will fold their wings when they detect ultrasonic sounds from predators, such as bats. The moths fold up, drop to the ground, and hide in response to sensing the sounds.
The process of learning by watching others is called Observational learning
Koko the gorilla learns sign language by observing Penny.
Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior.
Example, a dog will drool the first time, and every time, it is exposed to food.
A type of learning that uses reason, especially to form conclusions, inferences, or judgments, to solve a problem.
Chimpanzees stack boxes to reach a banana that is out of reach in a study done by Wolfgang Kohler.
Intro to Ecology and the Biosphere
Factors that Produce Different Environments.
Coriolis effect: An apparent force that arises because of the earth's spin around its axis. Freely-moving objects are deflected to the right of their direction of motion in the northern hemisphere and to the left of their direction of motion in the southern hemisphere.
The Rain Shadow Effect is where moist air gets blocked by mountains. A rain shadow is a dry area on the side of a mountain opposite to the wind.
Climate patterns are largely determined by the input of solar energy and Earth's revolution around the sun.
The axial tilt is the reason why Earth experiences different seasons throughout the year, and also why summer and winter occur opposite each other on either side of the equator (and with greater intensity farther away from the equator).
precipitation is highly seasonal, 30-50 cm annually. Warm Summers (30 degrees celsius), cool the rest of the year (12 degrees celsius)
dominated by shrubs and small trees. Deer and goats are common as well as amphibians, birds and other reptiles and insects.
midlatitude coastal regions on several continents.
Precipitation is highly seasonal. dry winters/wet summers. 30-100cm annually. Cold winters at -10 degrees celsius and hot summers nearing 30 degrees celsius
Dominant plants are grasses and forbs that vary in height. Large grazers and burrowing mammals are common.
The veldts of South Africa, the puszta of Hungary and the pampas of Argentina are examples.
Rainfall avg: 30-50cm annually. warm year round, 24-29 degrees celsius.
Scattered trees, often thorny with small leaves. fires are common. Large plant eating mammals and predators.
Occurs in equatorial and subequatorial regions
Northern Coniferous Forest
precipitation ranges from 30-70cm annually with periodic droughts. cold winters and hot summers. -50 degrees celsius to 20 degrees celsius
Dominated by cone bearing trees. birds, moose, brown bears, and tigers are common.
Broad band across northern North America and Eurasia to the edge of the arctic tundra.
Precipitation is low and highly variable, 30 cm annually. Temp is variable seasonally and daily, mac 50 degrees celsius, min -30 degrees celsius
Low widely scattered vegetation. Common animals include snakes , lizards, ants, beetles, birds and rodents.
typically occur in bands near 30 degrees north and south latitude
Temperate broadleaf forest
precipitation varies from 70-200cm annually. temp varies from 0-35 degrees celsius with colder winters and hot summers.
Distinct vertical layers of plants. includes hibernating mammals and migratory birds.
mostly found in midlatitudes in the northern hemisphere
precipitation is relatively constant, 150-200 cm annually. High temp. year round, 25-20 degrees Celsius with little variation.
Plants are vertically layered, home to millions of species of animals.
Occur in equatorial and subequatorial regions
Temp varies from -30 degrees to 10 degrees celsius with extremely cold winter and slighlty warmer summers.
precipitation varies from 20 to 60 cm annually.
Mostly herbaceous vegetation. common animals include large oxen, caribou, reindeer, bears, wolves and foxes.
Sufficient light for photosynthesis. Upper zone.
little light penetrates
Abyssal zone lies in Aphotic zone. 2000-6000m below surface
at the bottom of all aquatic zones.
made up of sand and organic and inorganic sediments.
occupied by communities of organisms collectively called benthos.
number of individuals per unit area or volume. Effected by births, deaths, immigration, and emigration.
The pattern of spacing among individuals within a population
Examples include Clumped, Uniform, and Random.
Models of Population growth
Exponential growth; represents a pop. growth when resources are relatively abundant. An example is the population of elephants in Kruger National Park, South Africa, growing exponentially for approximately 60 years after being protected from hunting.
In logistic growth, growth levels off as a population size approaches the carrying capacity. The growth of laboratory populations of some small animals, and microorganisms fits an S-shaped curve fairly well under conditions of limited resources.
Human population growth
Ecological footprint: aggregate land and water area needed to produce all the resources a person or group of people consume and to absorb all of their wastes.
Since about 1650, the human pop. has grown exponentially, but in the last 50 years the growth rate has fallen by half. differences in age structure show that while some nations populations are growing rapidly, others are stable or declining. Infant mortality and life expectancy vary between countires
Factors that effect population growth
Density-dependent: population regulation, death rates rise and birth rates fall with increasing density.
Density-independent: population regulation, birth rates, and death rates do not vary with density.