History of corrections: Colonial period, penitentiary, Pennsylvania system, New York system, convict leasing, reformatory movement, rehabilitation, community model, and crime control.
Crime control: 1970s- 2000s. "Nothing works" -Martinsen.
---Get tough on crime
-3 strikes legislation
-greater use of incarceration
Community Model: 1960s- 1970s. Root in civil unrest, distrust of government.
- civil rights movement
- vietnam war
- focus on reintegration & community programming
Rehabilitation: 1930s- 1960s. Progressive/medical model.
-focus on environmental & offender rehabilitation
- medical/ psychological treatment
- vocational training
Reformatory Movement: 1870s- 1890s. National Prison Association Meeting, Cincinnati 1870.
-inmate change rewarded by release
- indeterminate sentences
-separation of sexes
Elmira Reformatory (1876) Zebulon Brockway.
Convict leasing: Post- civil war south. "Plantation model" of corrections.
Incorporation of African- Americans into corrections system for use as slave labor.
"Slavery by another name"
Pennsylvania system: congregate system. Auburn Penitentiary, New York.
Isolated @ night, together during day.
Began contract labor system involving inmates.
Colonial period: 1600s- 1790s. Based on Anglican Code.
Incorporated fines, corporal (physical) & capital punishment (death). Rooted Religious Philosophy