period 3 part 2: 600ce-1450 (MONGOL EMPIRE (conquest in 3 steps: genghis…
period 3 part 2: 600ce-1450
THE NEW WORLD:
"anasazi" (600-1450) of american southwest.
trade routes across all SW USA and mexico: obsidian, corn, turquoise, exotic feather, buffalo, salt, sea shells.
lived in towns with sophisticated architecture, centered on chaco canyon (850-1150).
declined around 1200 due to lack of water/climate change.
(900-1450) corn territory along mississippi river.
Cahokia: fortified mound city (1050-1250). 20,000 population at largest. traded mica, copper, sea shells.
(1425-1533) centered on cuzco. andes of peru. 25,000 miles of mountain roads. suspension bridges. used runners to deliver messages.
forcibly moved conquered peoples to different environments. (heavy handed rule)
mit'a system: no human sacrifice but forced labor tribute
quipu: traditional andean record keeping system, using knots.
RELIGION: prominent human sacrifice to ward off apocalypse and keep sun burning.
went to war to get fresh blood for their gods.
mesoamerica... mexica people migrated to valley of memo city (olmec and mayan area)
settled on a island in a lake that now doesn't exist.
named their city Tenochtitlan in
: forged triple alliance with 2 other city states, overthrew mainland rule, imperial expansion by aztecs
didn't care about customs just wanted tribute from conquered peoples. tributes were slaves or goods. local rulers stayed in power. trade flourished across aztec lands
developed a massive empire centered on tenochtitlan without horses or wheels. 1.3 million people at its height. piped in drinking water. connected by causeway to mainland. spansih destroyed monuments, made it headquarters for their rule.
baltic sea connects to england, allied ports for trade promotion
mediterrean sea routes: dominated by italian states (Venice and Genoa. lots of colonies...
sand roads: transsaharan start at 300 ce thanks to camels
west africa (mali, ghana) embrace islam.
women had greater freedom and influence.
timbuktu was great cultural, academic center.
MANSA MUSA: Mali 14yh century... made hajj, brings gold, generous, ruins egyptian economy.
export: gold, slaves. import salt.
islam was really friend commercially. black slaves were imported from east africa to middle east.
south east asia becomes more islamizcized.
guangzhou: china center of muslim diaspora.
the shale, coast, was islamic... city-states of zanibar, mombasa, mogadishu.... arabic blended with bantu languages creating "swahili"
got their gold from the inland kingdom of great zimbabewe. (1250-1450) indirect trade with china. stone town.
sea roads: indian ocean trade: intensified during islamic times, stretched to south asia, china. used dhow ships..triangle sail.
an austronesian sailor spread banana to africa
silk road: china to levant, overland trade. lots of luxury goods. silk and paper defused from east to europe
patrol people were more chill about gender. elite mongol women had a high degree of power and influence, like genghis' favorite wife. could hunt, no veils, no foot binding.
due to the PAX MONGOLICA.
BLACK DEATH (1350)
deadliest plague of Afroeurasia. spread by fleas and airborne. started east. cities declines. 1/3 of europe dead. destroyed serfdom due to peasant labor demand.
LITTLE ICE AGE
colder climate (1300-1850). decline of agricultural productivity, standard of living lowered, migration south by farmers.
mongols were defeated in the levant by mamluks of egypt. , never conquered japan.
YUAN DYNASTY: 1271-1368. mongol khanate, deeply sinified./ influenced by china. unified china.
tolerated chinese culture, abandoned nomadic ways. extend canals, paved highways, tried to conquer java and vietnam.
1260-1294... grandson of genghis, mandate of heaven "passed to him" ... founded yuan dynasty, capital beijing. unified china
empire was too big... divided into khanates
didn't care about what locals did or religion as long as tributes were paid... all but great converted to islam.
khanate of the great khan: capital, china, mongol, tibet... chagatai: the stans of central asia
ilkhanate: persia, mesopotamia
khanate of the golden horde: like russia
Russia under "Mongol Yoke": 1240-1480. not a direct rule. required to pay tribute but left alone, like a vassal state. allowed to practice orthodox christianity.
1380: battle of kalikovo: moscow deals mongols.
russia is head of russian orthodox church
marco polo: venetian who traveled to china and worked for kuala khan
gun powder spread from east to europe.
how mongols ruled: long distance trade, silk road. "yam system" mongol pony express.
genghis wanted china (jin and southern song dynasty)
conquest in 3 steps: genghis-> sons-> grandsons
1279- greatest extent of mongol empire
1274, 1281- mongols fail, twice to conquer japan due to cyclones.
1260- battle of Ayn Jalut- Mamluks vs Mongols in Syria, levant.
1258- mongols conquer baghdhad, end abbasid caliphate.
1260s-70s: mongols conquer song dynasty...all of china under mongol rule.
1237-1247 mongols conquest of kievan rus. mongols invade east europe. but the son gave up in 1242.
1259- sons conquer russia, middle east
1227- genghis dies of natural causes
1223 conquered central asia
1215- barracked jin dynasty
very strict, like legalism. ruthless cruelty. terrorized enemies in to surrender.
world class archers, calvary.
Genghis Khan united all mongol clans
nomads: attack on trade of civilized peoples, no centralized government. pagans.
european steppe: homeland of moguls. yurt: circular round, portable tent inhabited by pastoral nomads
Emperor Justinian: took back italy, south spain, series of wars to reconquer west. annexed north africa.
: greek speaking, wealthier, more urbanized, bigger population.
fought persians in 6-7 century wars. arabs conquers a ton, leaving byzantine empires just balkans and anatolia
roman law is still used, strengthened by justinian's code. christianity (eastern orthodox) is really official and strong. Justinian built St Sophia Cathedral. EASTERN ORTHODOX SPLIT IN 1054
:adopted Roman Catholism
WESTERN EUROPEAN SOCIETY:
spanish reconquista of islamic spain
Seljuk turks threaten the Byzantine Empire
: pope calls for crusade--> the christian holy war... lies about muslims doing bad things to christians in holy land, defend byzantine... take violence out of west.
crusader states in levant: basically early colonialism. increased interaction between europe and islamic world. .. increased trade, sugar processing, asian luxury.
first crusade (1096-7): committed atrocities like cannibalism. captured jereselum, slaughtered EVERYONE.
more productive agriculture: 1. moldboard plow pulled by animal---> relied on draft animals, oxen or horses. 2. three field crop rotation (barley, wheat, fallow/animal grazing) 3. warmer climate (medieval warming)
serfs: tied to land, Lords provide housing and protection, but receive labor and crops...legally forbidden to leave or search for work elsewhere.
knighthood increases with the invention of stirrups. chivalry: europeans knights code of honorable behavior...the cultural part of knighthood.
feudalism/vassal system, decentralized government. fief--> land that baron ruled. castles: military strongholds build by nobles. nobles symbolically support king.
previously, germanic tribes were pagan.
CHARLEMAGNE: (768-814) greatly expanded frankish territory, goal: conquer saxons & convert christianity. CROWNED HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR
. empire falls apart after his deaht
invaders in 9th-10th century: muslims, vikings, mugyars: nomads of central asia settle in hungary.
RISE OF RUSSIA
slavs/slavic people: loosely related language family. sold as slaves during era of charlemagne. KIEVAN RUS: trading relationship with Byzantine. on eastern european plain, flat forest meadow river
varangians/vikings:established the first russian state. baltic and black sea linked keivan run. exported slaves, fur, honey, wax, and received luxury goods from Byzantium empire. traded down the volga river with muslims and turks
: prince vladmir converts to orthodox christianity and so does all of russia
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vikings: long ships could sail rivers and seas. plunder, get slaves, terrorize pillage raid monasteries. explore north atlantic, established settlements in Iceland and Greenland. viking settlement in northern newfoundland (11th century), last external invaders of medieval europe
KINGDOM OF THE FRANKS: stopped the Arab invasion at battle of tours.
next thousand years is a sad shrinkage of roman empire
decline of roman west: many cities and long term trade collapse
church administration took place of imperial government
political instability at the top around 235...issues of succession bc its not father son dynastic. chosen by predecessor or military coup. r
runaway economic inflation.
epidemic diseases decimated the population
Germanic Tribes: farmers of horses, sheep, cattle. made iron. traded extensively with rome, served in roman army.
Odocaer (barbarian chief) deposes last teenage emperor
476 is the end of the western roman period
Briton was conquered by Angles and Saxons
Gaul is conquered by Franks...French....assimlated to Roman Gaul
490s, ostrogoths invade italy and establish a powerful kingdom
roman clash with visigoth (370s): asked for migration rights, treated poorly by authorities and rebelled, emperor killed and rome sacked in 410.
Vandals: took carthage, took sicily, sacked rome, cut off grain supply to roman empire
Diocletian: (284-305) lets drastically save rome. divided roman empire into 2. 2 co emperors, with vice emperors. vice emperors were supposed to become the new emperors.... but civil war broke out instead.
Constantine won the civil war,,, reunited empire. moved capital from rome to istanbul/constantipole therefore close to both germanic and persian fronts. rome population declines rapidly. very hard to rconquerget
height: 117: stretched from britain to mesopotamia. relatively tolerant (except persecuted christians for being too exclusive) pax romana brought peace. urban areas thrived. centered on mediterrean.