Animal form and function and ecology (CH 53. POPULATION ECOLOGY (Density…
Animal form and function and ecology
CH 51. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
a routine, that is repeated because easy and comfortable.
A turtle draws its heads back into it shells when its shell is touched, after being touched repeatedly once it relies its not in danger it no longer hides.
When you move into a new house by some train tracks the sound of the trains keep you up at night after a while you get use to the noise and are able to ignore it.
Learning through watch others, and replicating behaviors that are observed.
Octopus opens a jar for food by just observing another octopus doing it.
method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.
Rat learns to run a maze without mistakes to receive food reward.
bird learns to peck through cardboard tops of milk bottles left on doorsteps to obtain the desired cream.
Dog learns that he will get attention when he barks
Combine what you know to solve a problem.
Raccoons will find a way to get to food no matter how hard you make it for them.
Watching a repairperson fix a broken appliance may give you ideas about how to fix that appliance if it breaks again.
associate one environmental feature(color) with another (foul take).
Blue jays avoiding monarch butterflies or similar because they vomit immediately after eating them.
Long lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object.
A mother goat can recognize its own baby goat by smell
Salmon returns to its home stream to spawn
Fixed Action Pattern
Unlearned acts directly linked to a simple stimulus.
Sickle back fish when it sees red it attacks to defend their nesting territories.
male mosquitos go through all the steps of copulation when they hear a female mosquito.
What you're born with.
Baby performs a sucking behavior when it nurses.
Jeweled wasps paralize a cockroach to lay its egg in its body so its newborn can consume and survive inside the cockroach.
CH 52. INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND THE BIOSPHERE
Average temp: 10-12 degrees C. Summer: 30-40 degrees
shrubs, small trees, grasses, herbs.
seasonal,rainy winters and dry summers.
Deer goats, small mammals, amphibians, birds, reptiles, and insects,
Midlatitude coastal regions
Winters are cold below -10 degrees C. Summers: 30 degrees C.
Seasonal, dry winters and int summers.
large grazers: Bison, wild horses. Burrowing mammals: Prairie dogs.
South Africa, Hungary, aragonite, Uruguay, russia, central north america.
warm yr round 24-29 degrees C.
throne and small leave trees
Seasonal, dry season: 8-9 months
large plant eating animals, such as wildebeests, zebras, and predators including lions&hyenas. Dominant herbivores are insects.
Equatorial and subequatorial regions.
Northern coniferous forest
Winters are cold: -50 degrees C and in the summer: 20 degrees C.
cone bearing trees such as pine, spruce fir, hemlock.
Periodic droughts, may receive annual percipitation.
Birds, moose, brown bears, Siberian tigers, insects.
largest terrestrial biome. North america, eurasia, arctic tundra.
SEasona, hot deserts: exceed 50 degrees and in cold deserts: below -30 degrees.
cacti, euphorbes, rooted shrubs,herbs,
low in highly variable.
snakes, lizards, scorpians,seed eating rodents, ants, beetles,birds.
Bands near 300 degrees north and south latitude.
Temperate broadleaf forest
Annually, summer rain and winter snow.
Winter: 0 degrees C. Summers: 35 degrees C which are hot and humid.
Midlatitudes in the northern hemisphere, Chile, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand.
understory trees, shrubs, herb, deciduous trees.
mammals, birds, insects
Tropical rainforest: Constant rainfall, tropical dry forest: seasonal, 6-7 dry season.
25-29 degrees C
Equatorial & subequatorial regions
Tropical rainforest: trees that grow above-closed canopy, broadleaf evergreen trees. dry forests: thorny shrubs, succulent plants
Insects,spiders, other arthropods, amphibians,birds, reptiles, mammals.
winters are cold: -30 degrees C. summer : less than 10 degrees C.
Arctic, high mountain tops at all latitudes including the tropics.
herbaceous consisting of mosses, grasses, and Forbes. Some dwarf shrubs, trees, lichens.
large grazing musk oxen, caribou reindeer, birds. Predators: bears, wolves, foxes.
Oxygen & nutrient levels are generally high and renewed with each turn of tides.
Periodically submerged and exposed by the tides. Interertidal zones limit distributions of many organisms to particular strata.
Ocean Pelagic zones
Oxygen levels are high snd nutrient levels are low. Thermally stratified yr round.
Vast realm of open blue water,mixed by wind driven oceanic currents.
salinity varies from that of freshwater to seawater and the rise and fall of tides.
Transition area between river and sea.
Require high oxygen levels and are excluded by high inputs of fresh water&nutrients.
Formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals. High water clarity, near islands, along the edge of continents.
salt and nutrient content increases from the headwaters(Are rich in oxygen) to the mouth. Organic matter in rivers consists of dissolved or fragmented material that is carried by current.
Speed and volume of their water flow. Are stratified into vertical zones.
Marine Benthic Zones
organic enrichment, oxygen is usually present at sufficient concentrations to support diverse animal life.
consists of the seawater below the surface waters of the coastal. Receive no sunlight.
Water and soils are periodically low in dissolved oxygen, High capacity to filter dissolved nutrients & chemical pollutants.
Inundated by water at least some of the time, supports plants adapted to water saturated soil (floods).
Oligotrophic: nutrient poor and oxygen rich while eutrophic lakes: nutrient rich and oxygen poor
Standing bodies of water range from ponds and lakes. Temp. lakes have seasonal thermocline; tropical lowland lakes have thermocline yr round.
FACTORS THAT PRODUCE DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
Tilt of the earth
tilt of the earth is 23.5 degrees(causing seasons)
tilted toward the sun in June 21(summer solstice)
Tilted away from the sun(winter solstice)
tilted toward the sun in December 21(winter solstice)
Tilted away from the sun(summer solstice)
Perpendicular to the sun
March 20(march equinox) and September 22(September equinox)
the poles are cold because they further away from the equator.
Region having little rainfall because mountains block the passage of rain producing weather and cast a shadow of darkness.
Circular patterns, where northern hemisphere blows clockwise on an area of high pressure and southern hemisphere blows counterclockwise around lower pressure.
CH 53. POPULATION ECOLOGY
Penguins evenly space out for aggressive interactions between neighbors.
Dandelions grow from windblown seeds.
Individuals are aggregated in patches(because of food).
Sea stars group together where food is abundant.
Factors that affect population growth
A birth rate or death rate that does not change with population density.
a death rate that increases with population density or a birth rate that falls with rising density.
Density-dependent factors that affect population growth
The predators capture more food as the population of prey increases, predators can feed preferentially on that species and reproduce more.
As population increases, it limits space, which space becomes the resource that individuals compete for.
Cheetahs use a chemical marker in urine to warn other cheetahs of their territorial boundaries.
The more crowded the population is the more the disease will spread.
Ex. Flu is spread through the air when an infected person sneezes or coughs disease will spread more in crowded areas.
As population increases it also increases aggressive interaction/behaviors.
Competition for resources
As population increases population compete for nutrients(food)and other resources(space), reducing reproductive rates.
Humans polluting earth
Amount of land that is needed to sustain one person for their resources.
An American uses about 24 acres to be sustained and a person that doesn't live like an American uses 2.4 acres. If every person on earth needed as much resources as an American we would need 4 more planet earths.
Population that experiences such ideals conditions increases in size by a constant proportion at each instant in time.
Rate of growth increases while population increases. When there's unlimited resources people reproduce more, which populations show an exponetial growth.
The per capita rate of population growth approaches zero as the population size nears the carrying capacity(k).
(K) carrying capacity is the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain.
As population has unlimited resources the growth increases as they are running low on resources the growth decreases and the population can't be sustained and it reaches the carrying capacity.
Countries that have the highest population
Study of vital statistics of population and how they change over time.
Basic factors: birth, death, immigration, emigration
3 survivorship curves
Type 3 curve
Drops sharply at the start reflecting high death rates for the young, but flattens out as death rates decline for those that survived.
associated with organisms that produce very large numbers of offspring but provide little care-lived plants, fishes, marine invertebrates, oyster.
Type 2 curve
constant death rate over the organisms lifespan
Occurs in squirrels, rodents, lizards, invertebrates, annual plants
Type 1 curve
Produce few offspring but provide good care
Humans, elephants, large mammals.
Reproduces only once then it dies.
Ex. Coho salmon once matures produces thousands of eggs in single reproductive opportunity before it dies.
Density independent factors that affect population growth
Wipes out a lot of trees decreasing tree populations
Causes a lot of plants and trees to dry up making many organisms to die from dehydration end not enough food resources.
natural disaster, which wipes out a lot of people decreasing population.