Simony and Schism through Crusades (Crusades (Results of the Crusades …
Simony and Schism through Crusades
Charles Martel- Won the battle of Tours
Pepin the Short- Succeeds his father and clears out land for the pope in the Papal States.
Charlemagne- Crowned by the Pope as the Holy Roman Emperor
Louis the Pius- divided kingdom among 3 sons
Feudalism- A contractual system between kings and his vassals and the remainder of the population
Papacy- Term for the position of the Pope
Urban II- A Cluniac monk and an upright pope
1st crusade- Attempted to capture the Holy Land
Jerusalem- Both Muslims and Christians both refereed to Jerusalem as a place of major significance.
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Battle of Muret
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Divine office (AKA- Liturgy of the Hours) was works of the people
Urban's promise- if you go on the crusades, your sins will be forgiven.
Alexius I- Requested the help of the papacy when Muslims threatened his rule.
Godfrey - Led the people of Lorraine
Jihad- Arabic word which means striving or struggling
Pope Gregory VII papal against secular powers
Dictatus Papae- 27 statements from pope Gregory VII to reform the church
Canon law- Law of the church instituted by pope Gregory VII
Gregory Excommunicated Henry IV then Henry knelt in the snow for three days then Gregory let him back in the church
St. Hugh of Cluny was godfather to Henry IV and was a part in the Gregory, Henry conflict. He found the Cluniac order
Saladin- First sultan of Egypt, and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty
Thomas of Becket was the friend of Henry II and was put in as the Archbishop of Canterbury. Henry thought that with him there that could get what he wanted but Thomas actually wanted to reform the church. Because of that, Henry had him murdered.
Holy Roman Empire
3rd crusade- Gave complements to the Robin Hood Stories
4th crusade- Sack of Constantinople
Results of the Crusades
Pilgrimages to Holy land easier
Curiosity for foreign culture
World more open to Westerners
Ecclesiastical Power- The clergy often seen as a pawn for kings to exploit to their advantage opening the Church up to scandal.
Lay Investiture Crisis- Kings trying to take power from the bishops.
Nepotism- The appointment of family members to important positions of authority.
Simony- The buying and selling of church offices.
St. Berno- Sought reform in the Church and a return to the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Cisercians- Stood out because they wore white habits
Carthusians- Eremitic monks
Council of Toledo- The introduction of the Filoque clause was introduced
Filoque- means "and the Son"
Constantinople I- Condemned Arianism and confirmed the Nicene Creed
Second Council of Nicaea 787 AD- Recognized as the last ecumenical council where they revised the creeds translation which lead on later to the great schism of the east and the west church
Language- Constantinople mainly spoke Greek while Rome mainly spoke Latin.