New Media & Digital Culture (New Media & the Transformation of…
New Media & Digital Culture
Introduction to New Media
The synthesis of two histories is referred to as "Convergence"
The "three C's" of computing are communication, content, and computing
Tim Berners Lee is credited with the development of the World Wide Web
Asia has the highest number of internet users, about 44.8% of the population
The core principles of Wikinomics:
Openness, open source and open standards of movements, as well as corporate transparency and an open attitude towards ideas
Peering, promotion of collaboration through open, horizontal networks
Sharing, adoption of less proprietary approaches to intellectual property
Acting globally, seeking to source knowledge and resources from all parts of the globe
Twenty Concepts in New Media
Collective Intelligence is the idea that none of us can know everything; each of us knows something; and we can put the pieces together if we pool our resources and combine our skills
Creative Commons is a non-profit organization founded in 2001, "that is devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon and share"
Digital Divide refers to inequity in access to computers and Internet, but it also refers to the ability to use these technologies to participate in public life
Hacking is the sharing and modifying of computer programs to explore how they work and explore them, as well as gaining entry into a security system
Marshall McLuhan used the term "remediation" to describe how experiences with any medium are conditioned by those media with which we are already familiar.
Approaches to New Media
Technological Determinism is the idea that new technologies are "self generating" and are invented in an independent sphere that create new societies
Social shaping of technology is the alternative view to technological determinism
Marshall McLuhan and Raymond Williams present completely opposite views of how media technologies are developed and used
McLuhan described media technologies as "extensions of man"
Income levels, gender, and socioeconomic status still exist as barriers to full and equal participation in new media
Actor-network theory proposes that anything that makes a difference is an "actor" and completely rejects technological determinism.
Kranzberg's First Law is that "technology is neither good, nor bad, nor is it neutral."
Social Networking & New Media
Network externalities can be either positive or negative.
Metcalfe's Law is the equation [n x (n - 1) = n2 - n] means that membership in a network has a value to the user but is more valuable to other users.
"Modularity" is a property of a project that determines the extent to which it can be broken down into smaller components. A nuclear plant his low modularity, whereas Wikipedia has high modularity.
In 2007 there was the most active Wikipedians
One study has found the accuracy of entries in Wikipedia to be broadly comparable to the Encyclopedia Brittanica.
SNS stands for social networking sites
One criticism of social networking is that it creates "public sphericles" and fragments public issues.
Games Technology, Industry, Culture
Features of games are:
Valorisation of outcomes
Gamification refers to the use of game mechanics in non-game contexts such as education.
Games and Game Platforms:
Games within social media
PC based games
The gaming industry's revenues have exceeded the movie and music industries in the US.
The decline of the Golden Age of Arcade Games was partially due to a shift towards home-based games, such as NES.
The most popular PC based game is Sims
Major players in the tradition game industry:
Responsible for financing the development costs of games
Employment in the games industry is male dominated and lacks diversity.
New Media & the Transformation of Higher Education
MOOC stands for massively open online courses
The five P's:
The United States is the leading country for international students
The three phases of growth in the higher education sector are mass, elite, and universal
Digital media technologies enable more flexible delivery of education.
The main competitor of universities is the industry
University of Phoenix is the largest for profit institution
Key Features of MOOC's:
Courses can have an unlimited size
They are free
They are not for academic credit
Completion rates for MOOCs are extremely low