Napoleon Forges an Empire (Napoleon Seizes Power (Coup d’État (In 1799,…
Napoleon Forges an Empire
Napoleon Seizes Power
Life Before Power
Born in 1769 on the Mediterranean Island
At nine was sent to military school
At the age of 16, he finished school and went into the artillery. He became a lieutenant
He would then end up joining the army to help fight in the revolution.
Picture of Napoleon
In 1799, France's Directory lost all of it's power. This is when Napoleon started his run in power.
He did this by getting his army to surround the national legislature. He was able to make all of the members leave.
Once in power he help create a group of three different consuls, one of which included him. He would soon become the highest consul.
Because he gained power so quickly it was soon known as by the French as a "Coup ", which was taken from the phrase "Coup d’État" This translates to blow to the state.
When he first started his rein in power, France was still fighting in a war. However Napoleon was able to make peace. This was the first time that Europe had piece in over ten years.
Leadership and Change
Napoleon's Power in France
How would you compare Napoleon’s actions in October 1795 and November 1799?
I think in October Napoleon was mostly just concerned about the little things like what moves his army should make. Compared to in November he was worried about a whole country and even other countries.
Hero of the hour
October 1795- Napoleon and a couple of other men followed the order that was given to the to help fight against the royalist
This is what made Napoleon such a big hero throughout Paris
1796- Napoleon was put in charge of the French army in the fights against Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
He would end up getting multiple victories while he crossed the Alps
Napoleon even helped protect France, he did this by controlling the amount of trade that would go through there.
He didn't have a long victorious run though. His army got captured while they were fighting in Egypt.
What evidence shows that Napoleon cared about his image?
The fact that he cared so much to make sure his army would succeed on all of their missions.
Napoleon Rules France
In 1800, a plebiscite was held to approve a new constitution
People voted in favor of the constitution so this gave Napoleon the power
He kept many of the changes that had come with the Revolution
Napoleon supported laws under two categories
Strengthen the central government
Achieve some of the goals of the Revolution
Napoleon's First Actions
Napoleon set up an efficient method of tax collection and established a national banking system
This promoted sound financial management and better control of the economy
Napoleon and Taxes
He took steps to end corruption and inefficiency in government
He dismissed corrupt officials and set up lycées, or government-run public schools
Graduates were appointed to public office on the basis of merit rather than family connections
What made the admissions policies of the Lycées significant?
The admissions policies was based on merit instead of family connections
Education in France
The clergy and many peasants wanted to restore the position of the Church in France
Napoleon signed a concordat, or agreement, with Pope Pius VII
This established a new relationship between church and state
The concordat gained Napoleon the support of the organized Church as well as the majority of the French people
What caused Napoleon to reach an agreement with the Pope?
Napoleon signed a concordat with the Pope
Napoleon thought that his greatest work was his system of laws, known as the Napoleonic Code
This gave the country a uniform set of laws and eliminated many injustices
For example, freedom of speech and of the press were restricted under the code
The code also restored slavery in the French colonies of the Caribbean
Crowning as Emperor
In 1804, Napoleon decided to make himself emperor
Napoleon walked down the aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris while the pope waited for him with a crown
Napoleon signaled that he was more powerful than the Church, which had traditionally crowned the rulers of France
The Coronation of Napoleon
In general, did Napoleon make the French government stronger or weaker? I think he made it weaker because he joined the government with the Church and power had to be shared.
Napoleon Creates an Empire
Napoleon not content to be master of France. He wants to control all of Europe and give French power in America. Envisioned western empire to include Louisiana, Florida, French Guiana, and French West Indies. He knows the key to the area is the sugar producer Saint Domingue.
After leaving America Napoleon focused on Europe. He already annexed Austrian Netherlands and parts of Italy. He also set up a puppet government in Switzerland. Then he looked to expand his influence. Scared of him the British asked Russia, Austria, and Sweden to help.
He took this challenge and in a few brilliant battles, he crushed them. They could never predict his next move. After the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, Napoleon had a proclamation to show pride for his troops.
In time he forced Austria, Prussia, and Russia to sign peace treaties. This allowed him to create the largest European empire. The final big dog he had left to face was the powerhouse of the British navy.
Switzerland in the Napoleonic era
The Battle Of Trafalgar
Napoleon had won many battles and lost only one major battle. The Battle of Trafalgar was a big victory for the British. Just off the coast of Spain in 1805, Horatio Nelson a British Commander is a master a sea warfare.
He was able to beat Napoleon in sea and this gave two things. First it allowed British have supremacy for the next 100 years. Second it forced Napoleon to change plans and look for a new way to control the British.
How did the Battle of Trafalgar show the importance if Naval power?
It showed it's importance because when they lost at sea it made it so they had to create a complete new plan to how they would capture the British and win. It also gave the British Naval dominance.
The French Empire
In the beginning of 1800s Napoleon's victories gave him a lot of control over Europe. In 1812 the last free place from Napoleon was the British, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire.
Napoleon also controlled many idependend countries. This is Spain, Grand Duchy of Warsaw and a few German kingdoms. The rulers became Napoleons puppets, some where even his family.
The countries Russia, Prussia, and Austria were loosely attached to Napoleon. They weren't fully under his control but were easy to manipulate with threats.
The French Empire was huge yet unstable.Napoleon is only able to hold it for five years in 1807 to 1812 and then it fell apart. It collapse was partially Napoleon's fault.
How long did Napoleon's empire remain at it's peak?
It remained at its peak until 1812 when it fell apart.
How did napoleon's belief in equal opportunity conflict with his method of selecting leaders for puppet government?
It conflicted because he gave the highest spot to people he knew would listen to him and he could manipulate to do what he wanted. This isn't an equal opportunity if he is placing family as rulers so he can do what he wants.
Loss Of American Territories
The ideas of revolution reach planters in Saint Domingue in 1789. Demand that the National Assembly give same privileges as the people of France.
Eventually Africans demand rights as well. This causes a civil war. Africans under leadership of Toussaint L'Ouverture capture the colony.
Napoleon decided to take the colony and restore its sugar industry in 1801. But the French forces were killed by disease and rebels were fierce fighters.
After failing to capture Saint Domingue Napoleon decides to leave America. He sold the Louisiana Territory. Then in 1803 President Jefferson bought this land for 15 million dollars.
Napoleon saw two benefits to this. First he got money to finance operations in Europe. Secondly it will punish the British because it gave all power to United States.
How did L 'Ouverture's revolution benefit the United States?
The revolution made it so that Napoleon couldn't capture the colonies and so he gave up on capturing the United States and sold us the Louisiana Territory.