23-3 Napoleon Forges an Empire (Napoleon Creates an Empire (Napoleon…
23-3 Napoleon Forges an Empire
Napoleon Seizes Power
Hero of the Hour
In 1795, Napoleon was given the task as a young officer.
He was to protect the delegates at the Nation Convention.
With Cannonade, he scared the royalists off and became the savior of the French republic.
How would you compare Napoleon’s actions in October 1795 and November 1799?
He was protecting France at both times. He was first protecting the government, and then he overthrew it.
In 1796, he became a general and was to lead a French army against the forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
He won a series of victories in Italy.
He lead his army to Egypt to disrupt British trade with India and protect the French's interest.
He lost the battle, but remained a hero of France.
What evidence shows that Napoleon cared about his image?
He was able to and wanted to keep his loses out of newspapers and the media.
Directory is Falling
In 1799, the Directory lost the confidence of the French people, and the control of the political situation.
Abolishing the Directory
Upon his return from Egypt, he was encouraged to take the power from the Directory.
In November of 1799, he drove out most of national legislature's members.
The last lawmakers dissolved the Directory.
Why did his friends want Napoleon to have control?
Napoleon becomes a Dictator
A group of three consuls was created. Napoleon took the title of first consul and the powers of a dictator.
Why do you think that there were two other consuls?
A Result of War
France was still at war.
In 1799, Britain, Austria, and Russia joined forces to drive Napoleon from power.
As a result of war and diplomacy, all three nations signed peace agreements with France.
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Setting the Stage
Was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica
Extra Early Life info
Napoleon's Military Career
At the age of 9, he was sent to military school
When he was 16, he became a lieutenant in the artillery.
He joined the army when the Revolution broke out.
Why did his parents send him to military school?
His Military Accomplishments
Napoleon rose positions in the military to becoming a master of France.
He rose to become one of the greatest military geniuses.
Napoleon Rules France
Restoring Order at Home
Napoleon continued by keeping the ideas of the revolution
Supported the laws that help to strengthen and achieve goals
His Second Task
: Ending Governmental Corruption
Dismissed corrupt officials.
Provide government with
Officials had education rather than family connection.
He set up lycées
They were only open to male students of all backgrounds
: Lycées: government-run public schools
What made the admissions policies of the Lycées significant?
Only male students were admitted.
His Third Task
Disregarded the changes made in religion
Public opinion: Restore churches position in France
Napoleon signs concordat
Establishes church and states new relationship
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: Concordat - Agreement
His First Task
: The Economy
New efficient method of tax collection
National banking system
Promoted control and financial management
The Napoleonic Code
: A new comprehensive system of laws
A new uniform set of laws and eliminates unjust
Limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights.
Freedom of speech was restricted
Restoration of slavery in Caribbean
Napoleon Crowned as Emperor
Made himself emperor in 1804
Placed his crown on himself instead of the pope
Napoleon = more powerful than church
Church usually crowns rulers of France
What caused Napoleon to reach an agreement with the Pope?
He made it clear he had all power and the pope had none.
Had French voters support
Napoleon pretends to be a chosen leader of a free republic
1800- plebiscite was held approving a new constitution.
The result is that Napoleon is given all real power as a first council
: Plebiscite- vote of the people
Napoleon Creates an Empire
Napoleon wanted to master of France
He tried controlling Europe and France, but was unsuccessful
His western empire including Louisiana, Florida, French Guiana, and the French West Indies.
Haiti is on an island in Hispaniola that produces sugar.
French were devestated by a bad disease.
Rebels were very fierce fighters
Why would he want to have more control?
Loss of American Territories
1789, Revolution reached San Domingue, They wanted the same privileges as the people in France
Enslaved Africans demanded their rights too. They basically wanted Freedom.
Civil war erupted, and enslabed the leadership of Toussaint L’Overture seized control of the Colony
1801, Napoleon decided to take back and restore its productive sugar industry.
French colonial Empire
Q: How did L’Ouverture’s revolution benefit the United States?
A:The revolution was influential in slave rebellions in the US.
Napoleon decided to cut his losses in the Americas after the failure of expedition
He was offering to sell Louisiana Territory to the United States
In 1803, resident Jefferson’s administration was agreeing to purchase land for about 15 million.
Napoleon saw a twofold to sale
First, he would gain money to finance operations for Europe.
Second he was going to punish the British.
Napoleon Is usually completing his challegens with his boldness.
The Commanders of the Armies couldn’t ever predict the next move and was taking on very
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Why did he want to punish them?
The New World, Napoleon had ended up turning his attention to Europe.
Austrian Netherlands is a part of Italy to France, trying to set up a government in Switzerland.
Trying to expand his influence further.
The British persuaded Russia, Austria, and Sweden to join them to go agents France.
Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon only lost 1 major battle The battle of Tragalgar
This battle took place in 1805 on the southwest coast of Spain
There was two major results, 1st one is the Supermancy of the British Navy. For 100 years
The 2nd one is forcing Napoleon to give up the plans for invading Britain.
He was looking for another way to take control
Q: How did the Battle of Trafalgar show the importance of Naval power?
A: Because that was Napoleons waeakest battle. The one he lost
Battle of Trafalgar
The French Empire
1800’s Napoleon had victories over most of Europe.
By 1812, the only free areas were Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and Ottoman Empire
Napoleon also had to control many independent countries.
The most powerful countries of Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
Napoleon only maintained the greatest extant for 5 years.
Then it fell to pieces and was caused by Napoleons actions
Q: How long did Napoleon’s empire remain at it’s peak? A: From 1807 - 1812
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Why were these areas free?