Napoleon Forges an Empire - 23.3 (Napoleon Rules France (Tate) (Restoring…
Napoleon Forges an Empire - 23.3
Napoleon Seizes Power
Hero of the Hour
October 1795, fate handed the young officer a chance for glory
Royalist rebels marched on the National Convention, government official told him to defend the delegates.
Him and his gunners greeted the thousands of royalists with a cannonade.
Within minutes, the attackers fled in panic and confusion.
Napoleon became the hero of the hour and was hailed throughout Paris as the savior of the French republic.
!796 - Directory appointed Napoleon to lead a French army against the Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia.
The young general swept into Italy and won a series of remarkable victories.
In attempt to protect French trade interests and to disrupt British trade with India, He led an expedition to Egypt.
He was unable to repeat the successes achieved in Europe.
His army pinned down in Egypt, and the British admiral Horatio Nelson defeated his naval forces.
Hero of the Hour
1799 the Directory had lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the french people.
How would you compare Napoleon’s actions in October 1795 and November 1799?
Napoleon took action in early November 1799. Troops surrounded the national legislature and drove past most of its members.
Remaining lawmakers voted to dissolve the Directory.
In place of the Directory, they established a group of three consuls. (one being napoleon)
He soon tool the title of the first consul and summed the powers of a dictator.
In 1799, Britain, Austria, and Russia joined forces with on goal in mind and that was to drive Napoleon from power.
By 1802, Europe was at peace for the first time in ten years.
Napleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica.
What evidence shows that Napoleon cared about his image?
At nine years old his parents sent him to military school.
At 16 he finished school and became a lieutenant in the artillery.
When the Revolution broke out he joined the army of the new government.
Napoleon Rules France
In general, did Napoleon make the French government stronger or weaker? He made them stronger with his taxes.
What made the admissions policies of the Lycees significant? They were not going to be corrupt because they spent their whole life in school
At first Napoleon chose to be the leader of a free republic. In 1800 a vote of the people was held to approve the new constitution. Wanting good leadership the people voted overwhelmingly in favor of the constitution. This gave all power to Napoleon as first consul.
What caused Napoleon to reach an agreement with the Pope?
Restoring order at home
Napoleon did not try to return the nation to the days of Louis XVI rather he kept many of the changes that had come with the revolution. In general he supported laws that would both strengthen the central government and achieve some goals of the revolution
His first priority was to give the economy a solid foundation. He set up a national banking system and even set up a form of tax collection.
In making sure the government would have enough tax money these actions promoted a steady financial management with better control over the economy.
Napoleon took steps to end corruption and ineffiencey in the government. He fired dirty officials and in order to provide the government with good officials he set up government run schools.
These lycées were open to male students of all backgrounds. Graduates were appointed to government office on the basis of merit rather than family connections.
One area where Napoleon disregarded changes was religion. both the clergy and the peasants wanted to restore the position of church in France.
Responding to their wishes Napoleon signed a contract or agreement with pope pious VII. This established a new relationship from church and state.
The government recognized the influence of the church but rejected church control in national affairs. The concordat gained Napoleon the support of the organized church as well was he rest of the French People.
Napoleon thought his greatest work was his comprehensive system of laws known as the naploeminc code. This gave the the country a uniform set of laws and eliminated many injustices.
However it actually limited liberty and limited order and authority over individual people. For example freedom of speech and the press established during the French revolution were restricted under the code. the code also restored slavery in the French colonies in the carribean.
Napoleon crowned as emperor
Napoleon Creates an Empire
Napoleon wanted to spread his power from not only France, but Europe as a whole. He also wanted French power in the Americas
Loss of American Territories
A civil war started, and slaves seized control of the colony. Napoleon wanted to take back the colony, but the French soldiers were devastated with disease and rebel forces
How did L’Ouverture’s revolution benefit the United States?
L'Ouverture was in charge of the slaves before they revolted. The revolution helped the US because it made Napoleon give up on taking over the Americas.
Napoleon sold the Louisiana Territory to the US, because Napoleon decided he was done dealing with America
Revolutionary ideas reached Saint Domingue, a sugar-producing colony in Haiti. Planters and slaves demanded their rights
The slaves in Haiti revolted against the leaders because they wanted freedom.
The Battle of Trafalgar
However, this battle was very important
How did the Battle of Trafalgar show the importance of Naval power?
To have a good military, you need to be good at everything. The French navy was their weak point. Even if the army is great on land, you could lose it all on the water.
It led to the downfall of the French navy and ended Napoleon's plans to invade Britain,
Napoleon only lost one big battle, the Battle of Trafalgar - a naval battle against the powerful British navy
Napoleon was great with fighting on land, but not so good on water
The French Empire
The French empire was huge, but it was also unstable. It was hard to control it all, and a sudden collapse was soon to come
How long did Napoleon’s empire remain at it’s peak?
The French Empire was only maintained for 5 years (1807-1812)
Napoleon's consequences would soon be his downfall, as we will learn in the next section.
He also was in control of some independent countries. Some of these countries had puppet rulers
By 1812, Napoleon had mastery over most of Europe
All countries but Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire
He annexed parts of Italy and the Austrian Netherlands to France. Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden teamed up against them
: Several nations became allies to try and stop France's empire
In battles, Napoleon won with tactics and unpredictability
After giving up on conquering the Americas, Napoleon focused on Europe
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