EQ3: How successful is
Poor governance - Political corruption lead to inequality of living standards.
: Izmil earthquake 1999, 10,000 died. Turkish government, regulations were not enforced and left ignored.
Issues of predictability- Earthquakes harder to predict than volcanoes. Volcanoes can be detected by increase in heat in the area( thermal imagery) and gasses.
Set of actions and steps aimed at reducing the impact of a hazard event and the probability of its occurrence
Hazard management cycle-
Preparedness, response, mitigation and recovery
(tsunamis) - Coastal buffers (mangroves) absorbs some of the energy. Defence walls, land use zoning.
- Volcanoes (spraying cold water) Earthquakes (strengthening individual buildings)
Sendai Framework (2015)- Understanding disaster risk, that will strengthen governments. Investments in reduction and disaster preparedness
EQ2: Why do some tectonic hazards develop into disasters?
- Measures intensity and the experienced impacts
Moment Magnitude Scale
- Measures Magnitude
- Magnitude, speed of onset, areal extent, duration, frequency and spatial predictability.
- Natural/geophysical event that has the potential to threaten both life and property.
- Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) state that a hazard becomes a disaster when 10 or more people or killed and or 100 or more are affected
EQ1: Why are some locations more at risk from tectonic hazards?
Areas on or close to plate boundaries are likely to be more at risk from earthquakes and volcanoes
of all earthquakes are found in the 'Ring of Fire' in the Pacific Ocean
Powerful earthquakes: associated with
(plates move together) these actively deform collision locations with plate material melting the mantle
One plate starts sliding under the other, strain builds up in subduction zone. The friction between rock is overcome , releasing energy.
: Aceh, Indonesia 2004 9.1 Magnitude, at-least 225,000 reported deaths , lack of food, clean water, environmental damage- salt water killing plants
(also known as transform) one plate slide against another. Lithosphere is neihter created nor subducted, do no result in volcanic activity
(plates move away from one another) New oceanic crust is created. Earthquakes tend to be frequent but small. They do not typically trigger tsunamis.
- Two plates make contact as a result of converging,diverging or sliding past each other.