Napoleon Forges an Empire
Napoleon Creates an Empire
Loss of American Territories
A civil war erupted, and the enslaved Africans under the leadership of Toussaint L’Ouverture seized control over the colony.
In 1801, Napoleon decided to take back the colony, and restore it's sugar industry, but the soldiers ended up getting devastated with disease, and were defeated by the rebel fighters.
In 1789, the people of Saint Domingue heard about the ideas of the Revolution, they demanded that the National Assembly give them the same rights as the people of France, and soon the African slaves demanded their freedom too.
After the failure the regain the colony, Napoleon decided to give up the Americas all together. He sold the Louisiana territory to the Adam's Administration for $15 million. He thought that giving the United States full freedom, and full control over itself, it would give Britain a rival that will soon humble her pride.
Napoleon took on this rebellion with expected boldness. He devastated the enemy with a series of brilliantly strategized battles. Enemy commanders couldn't predict his next move, and very often took heavy losses. But after the rebel victory at Austerlitz in 1805, Napoleon issued a proclamation expressing his pride in his troops.
In time, Napoleon's success forced the rulers of Prussia, Russia, and Austria to sign peace treaties. France would soon become the greatest Empire in Europe since that of the Romans. France's only major rival left undefeated was the great naval power of Britain.
After failing to conquer the new world, Napoleon turned his ambitions to Europe. He already annexed the Austrian Netherlands, and parts of Italy, and conquered Switzerland. But Britain persuaded Russia, and all of the countries under Napoleon's control to join against him.
Napoleon didn't want to just control France, he wanted control over the Americas, the West Indies, and French Guiana. He knew that one way to help him gain control over that area was to control the sugar-producing colony of Saint Domingue (now called Haiti).
The Battle of Trafalgar
Two major results came out of the defeat of the French Naval Fleet. First, it ensured Britain's supremacy at sea for the next 100 years, and second, it forced Napoleon to give up trying to capture Britain.
Napoleon tried to find another way to control Britain, and eventually, Napoleon's extravagant efforts would be his undoing.
Napoleon only lost one major battle. The Battle of Trafalgar.
In 18055, a British commander by the name of Horatio Nelson led a British War fleet into battle with the French naval war fleet. Nelson split the French fleet into separate parts, and captured many ships.
The French Empire
Napoleon also controlled numerous amounts of supposedly independent countries, including Spain, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and numerous amounts of German countries in Central Europe.
The French Empire was huge, but very unstable. Napoleon was able to maintain it's peak for 5 years, from 1807 to 1812. Then it quickly fell into ruins, and the cause of the French demise was Napoleon's ego.
During the first decade of the 1800s, Napoleon's victories gave him control over most of Europe, and by 1812, the only countries that he didn't have control over was Britain, Sweden, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire.
The leaders of these countries were elected by Napoleon, and had to do what Napoleon told them to do. If the countries that Napoleon had influence over didn't comply to what Napoleon wanted, he would threaten them with military action.
How did the Battle of Trafalgar show the importance of Naval power?
If Britain didn't have as good of Naval strategy, or skill, then they wouldn't have ever beaten France, and would've been taken over by the French.
How did Napoleon’s belief in equal opportunity conflict with his method of selecting leaders for puppet governments?
His method of selecting leaders for puppet governments was just picking someone to command that government, then tell them exactly what to do, and if they didn't, he would threaten them with military action.
How long did Napoleon’s empire remain at it’s peak?
How did L’Ouverture’s revolution benefit the United States?
It forced Napoleon to sell the Louisiana territory to the United States, giving the US full freedom from all European influence.
Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon Rules France
Restoring Order at Home
He never tried returning to the nation to the days of Louis XVI. He kept a lot of changes from the Revolution. Laws were supported by him that would make the central government stronger and accomplish more tasks.
Task one was to stabilize the economy. He set up a good method of taxing and made a national banking system. To ensure that it is a stable supply of tax, these actions promoted sound financial management, not only that but better control on the economy. Napoleon took steps wanting to end the corrupted and inefficient government.
There was one area that Napoleon disregarded change from the Revolution... Religion. The clergy and many peasants wanted nothing more but to restore the position the Church had. So Napoleon had signed a concordat with the Pope Pius. That had turned into a new relationship with the Church and state.
Napoleon believed that his best work was the comprehensive system of laws, AKA... the Napoleonic Code. It gave the country a uniform set of law. It limited liberty and promoted order and authority. An example from the book would be, "freedom of speech and of the press. " This code restored slavery in French colonies.
What caused Napoleon to reach an agreement with the Pope?
The Lycées where government run schools
What made the admissions policies of the Lycees significant?
Napoleon Crowned as Emperor
1804, Napoleon had made himself emperor, and the French voters had his back. December 2, 1804, while in a robe of purple velvet, he had walked down the aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral.
The pope had waited for him with crown. Many people watched the new emperor take the crown from the Pope and put it on his head. Napoleon made it clear that was more powerful than the church, and had crowned the rulers of France.
Napoleon had pretended to be the constitutionally chosen leader of the free republic.1800, there was a plebiscite, vote of the people, held to approve a new constitution. Needing a strong leader, people had voted overwhelmingly wanting the constitution, and that gave real power to Napoleon as first consul
Napoleon Seizes Power
Napoleon Bonaparte was born on Corsica 1769. His parents sent him to military school when he was nine, and at the age of 16 he became a lieutenant in the artillery.
Hero of the Hour
In October of 1795, royalist rebels marched on the National Convention, and Napoleon was told to defend the delegates.
He was seen as a hero and as the savior of the French Republic
Napoleon lead a French Army against Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1796. He won a series of remarkable victories while crossing the Alps.
He then tried to disrupt British trade with India by leading an expedition to Egypt , but he wasn't as successful as he was in Europe.
His army was pinned down in Egypt, and Admiral Horatio Nelson beat his naval forces.
He managed to keep this news out of the newspapers and remained a great hero to the people of France.
1 more item...
Admiral Horatio Nelson
The Directory had lost control of the political situation in France by 1799, and when Napoleon returned, his friends urged him to seize political power.
In November of 1799, Napoleon's troops surrounded the national legislature and drove out most of its members.
The ones who were left voted to dissolve the Directory. They established the group of consuls in place of the Directory.
Napoleon took the spot of first consul and basically became a dictator.
In 1799, Britain, Austria and Russia came together in an attempt to take Napoleon out of power. Eventually all there nations signed peace agreements, and Napoleon could now focus on restoring order in France.
A sudden seizure of power is known as a coup.
How would you compare Napoleon's actions in October 1795 and November 1799?
His actions were very similar. He had an opportunity and he didn't let it get away.