The Early Church & Formation of Christianity (What is the Church? 4…
The Early Church & Formation of Christianity
Jesus in Jewish History- Josephus
Geography of Jesus' life- He preached mainly in Nazareth
Herodian Dynasty and Jesus' life- many generations of Herods in charge of different regions.
What kind of Jew was Jesus? disobeyed some teachings.
Samaritan- Jesus changed the way we remember them.
Destruction of Jerusalem- the Romans destroys the temple; Jews had to move to worship in synagogues and Christians held mass in the catacombs
Ecumenical Councils- meetings that first debated then decided the core beliefs of Christianity
Council of Nicaea 325 AD- council that defines the trinity
Athanasius-** argued that God, Jesus, and the Holy spirit were one in the same and equal
God = Jesus = Holy Spirit; all one
Arius- believed God was more divine than Jesus
Council of Constantinople 381 AD
Finalized The Creed (originally started at Council of Nicaea
Council of Ephesus 431 AD- council that debated the role of Mary
Theotokos**- God-barer; Mary is the mother of God. Jesus was God at conception.
Nestorianism- Jesus is two persons
Christotokos- Mary is mother of Christ (fully human)
Council of Chalcedon 451 AD
Monophysitism- Jesus only has one nature: 100% divine
Christology** - The study of Jesus' nature
Decided that Jesus is and was both fully human and fully divine at the same time
The Five "Good" Emperors
- They were known as the bad emperors for Christians
TRAJAN- act of saying you are Christian is a killable offense
- The profession of christianity in public ways itself is a crime
HADRIAN- only practicing Christians were persecuted
- It impacted the christians in that they enjoyed a relative amount of toleration.
NERVA- kept persecuting
ANTONINUS PIUS- nothing
MARCUS AURELIUS- back to Nero's days
What is the Church? 4 marks- one, holy, catholic, apostolic
Church's Foundations... Acts
- began at Pentecost
Apostolic Tradition- through the Apostles
Peter- 1st Pope
Quo Vatis- "Lord, where are you going?"
The Mass- often celebrated in secret
Liturgy of the Word- lines up with Jewish service
ICHTHUS- means "Jesus Christ, God's Son, Savior"; people drew this half this symbol and if the other person drew the second half they knew it was safe to talk about Christianity
Baptism- Jesus was baptized in the Jordan
Confession/Penance/Reconciliation- Jesus give powers to the Apostles to heal and forgive
First Communion/Holy Eucharist- Jesus' last super
Marriage- Adam and Eve/ Wedding of Cana
Holy Orders- Calling of the 12 apostles
Anointing of the Sick- Jesus sent them out 2 by 2 with oil and the apostle's healing
"The Way"- the way of the Gospels; early Christianity was often times called this
Liturgy of the Eucharist- this changes from Judaism
Persecution- early Christians were persecuted because their beliefs went against Roman ideas
"The Great Fire of Rome"- 64AD; blamed on Christians; Nero wanted to build in the city so he might be the one who started the fire
Parousia-The 2nd coming-
Roman Empire/ Romans and Christians- persecuted Christians; Calecium = games that the Romans used to kill Christians
Council of Jerusalem- decided that you don't have to be circumcised to be a Christian, your faith is enough; led the Romans to begin to notice Christianity
Martyrs and Early Saints
Martyr- a person who dies on behalf of the faith and the Church
St. Polycarp- A holy man who was sentenced to burn to death for his faith but through the grace of God the flames do not burn him.
St. Justin Martyr- a man who was known for his apologetic writings
Apologies- defense of the faith
St. Lawrence- known for his love of the poor. when asked to bring the riches of the Church to the Government, he brought all the poor people. He was sentenced to be burned alive and is known for joking and saying "flip me over, I'm done on this side" during his death
Heresy- false belief from someone of the same Religion
Decetism- Jesus only appeared to be man
Battle at the Melvin Bridge
( 312 CE)- Constantine seizes the empire, and destroys the tetrarchy, and has a conversion experience
Edict of Milan
(313 CE) - declaration of tolerance and legalization of Christianity.
- The new emperor and not a religious person.