Sociology assessment - Globalisation (Urbanisation and global development,…
Sociology assessment - Globalisation
Theories of globalisation
Hyperglobalisation - interconnection is growing rapidly on a big scale
Trade is an essential part of globalisation - choices
Economics and trade - economics grow at a greater rate - have to compete more - forced to be competitive - producing consumer goods - those who are less productive will be phased out.
Pessimistic globalisation - did not think globalisation would lead to a shared benefit - the majority will not benefit - only a small number will become very rich.
Markets - those who can afford to be more competitive and ruthless will expand but those who can't will go bust.
Mono-culture - idea that one culture is best - sweep other cultures aside.
Every culture is made to fit a western mono-culture
Disneyfication - the nice parts of a culture are accepted and the less comfortable bits are thrown away. Undermines tradition in culture
Fatalistic - globalisation is going to happen
Resist - actively resist globalisation - reassert local identity e.g. Spanish bullfighting - internationally regarded as unacceptable but reasserts traditional Spanish culture.
Commodification - make local culture sellable e.g. Whiskey - true to original produce but local to them - international profit
World systems theory
Wallerstein 1979 - Marxist who is unhappy with dependency theory - believes that saying there is no positives of globalisation is far too simplistic.
National borders are increasingly irrelevant to sociological study - find out information, news and ideas from anywhere very easily.
Capitalist system on a grand scale - core, semi-peripheral, peripheral.
Marginalisaiton e.g. Core = most involved.
Key difference between dependency theory and WST is that countries can move up and down between groups e.g. Greece, India.
Dependency theories would suggest that classes and groups are fixed and cannot be changed.
Transformationist / postmodernist theories
Middle ground between globalists and marxists - globalisation has been exaggerated but is happening
Globalisation is a concept set of interconnecting relationships through which power is exercised indirectly.
Western and developed cultures actually benefit and learn from globalisation too e.g. popularity of African Art.
Critical of Marxist assumptions e.g. just because tribe people use mobile phones does not mean they have abandoned their culture.
Glocalisation - local cultures takes aspects of globalised culture and adapt them to meet their needs.
Theories of global development
In order to develop a country they must follow the same path as currently developed countries.
Comes from WW2 and communist threat through capitalism.
Wanted to stop the spread of communism
Rostow - 5 stages of development
Societies have to become more meritocratic. This then creates economic growth. The harder people work, the more the economy will grow.
Critical of certain cultures that do not encourage economic and capitalist growth.
Class conflict between individual countries has now increased and is now on a global scale.
Military force is used to enforce power by developed countries on underdeveloped or less developed countires e.g. gain resources, land, or money.
Kleptocracy - system designed to allow a rich nation to steal from poorer, less developed countries (exploitative relationship)
Idi Amin - Uganda
Colonial relationship between rich and poor countries - Neo-colonialism
The trouble of Frank - does not see any benefits of globalisation but in reality there is.
Neo-liberal (New Right)
Laissez-faire - small government needs to leave businesses to run themselves and make their own success.
Only way LEDCs will develop is through a free market e.g. by offering cheap labour.
Don't want any form of dependency therefore will not give away money to the poor.
Loans are given which are meant to motivate people to work harder to repay the money.
However, this can cause debt due to interest so can create an exploitative relationship.
Attempts to throw out all previous ideas of global development - completely rejects modernisation
Rejects any approach that says all countries must follow the same path of development
Diversity of developing countries - all taken different paths to development e.g manufacturing, technology, culture, interests, people.
The hoax of development - richer countries don't actually want to help under-development countries to reach developed due to competition.
Comic relief, children in need, water aid.
Actually creating more of a trap between the rich and the poor.
Aid is given out of guilt but also to gain cheap labour and cheap goods.
No real long term development given to poor countries by developed nations - only short term help.
Socio-economic apartheid - developed countries create a system where the rich countries and the poor countries are permanently divided.
Schell - Nigeria
Urbanisation and global development
Why do people become urbanised?
More incentive for business
More urban infrastructure (helps development)
Young people and working class - more opportunity
Rural areas getting less developed
Urban areas getting more developed
Shanghai - 24,256,800 people
London - 8,673,713 people
Lagos, Nigeria - 16,060,303 people
Just because there are more people in urban areas does not mean they are more developed e.g. overcrowding, slums and shanty towns.
Andrew Marr - Mega Cities
Disaster training - preparing for natural or human disasters in urbanised areas.
Increased number of kidnapping, trafficking, prostitution and drug gangs in urbanised areas.
There is increasing contrast between the rich and poor nations - living so close together
Services are no longer reliable
People taking issues into their own hands - trying to resolve crime on their own
Police have a reputation for being corrupt
Americans are having to help - private police force - maintains dependency
Urbanisation - Large scale urban growth in 20th century
1900 - 14% global population lived in cities
2000 - 50% global population lived in cities
1900 - all cities were classed as the 'rich' world
2000 - 7 out of 10 urban cities are in the developing world
Why does urbanisation happen?
Lack of job / prospects
Lower wages in rural areas
Development of agri-business - small firms / farms now uncompetitive
Formalisation of ownership law
Loss of land (possibly been taken over by developing cities)
Rural infrastructure less advanced - lead to man made and natural disasters.
Helps people seeking jobs
Aids globalisation - new technology focused in one place
Most economically active people all in one place.
Creates chaos - lack of control of increasing population
Increases crime rate
Could lead to man made or human disasters
A02 - Theories
Urbanisation is positive
Developed countries had to go through urbanisation in order to reach their developed stage - developing countries must now do the same.
Urbanisation encourages cultural change and loosens ties to unhelpful traditional ways - Disneyfication
Urbanisation encourages entrepreneurial attitudes.
Urbanisation sustains underdevelopment
There are not industrial jobs available - TNCs can get them to work for extremely low wages.
Growth of an urban underclass - slums / shanty towns
TNCs can exploit these desperate workers in any way they want.
Urban areas display enormous inequality and the advantages associated with urbanisation are only seen by a small elite and tourists.
Trade and global development
Industrialisation and global development
Means a country can produce a wider range of higher value goods - both for sale at home and for export abroad.
Means a country will become less dependent on manufactured imports from abroad.
Industrialisation - the process by which an economy is transformed from primarily agricultural to one based on the manufacturing of goods.
Trade, marketing, products
Competition of consumer goods
Modern day slavery / marginalisation / oppression
Making products in very poor parts of a country - selling to rich and economically healthy countries
Heightened awareness of other cultures and beliefs
Pick and choose bit of cultures we like
Risk of discarding bits of cultures we do not like
End up with only a partial understanding of a culture
Media (social media) - is even present in the poorest of countries
Able to find out about richer cultures and increasing knowledge of whats happening in richer countries
Can influence identity and challenge cultures and religions
Definition of globalisation - the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of increased trade and cultural exchange.
The richest 1% of the worlds population own 48% of the world's wealth.
The 85 richest people in the world collectively have as much money as the poorest 3.5 billion people.
Globalisation is defined by Western academics therefore the terminology they use is determined by Western values and interests - contains Western assumptions about the poor.
Those who rank highest in economic development are not the highest rank in concerns to happiness and wellbeing.
Countries in South America have the highest ranking happiness.
Britain and the rest of America were not included in the highest happiness rank.
Countries in Africa are seen to be the least happiness.
First, Second and Third world
Undeveloped, underdeveloped, developing, less developed, developed
LEDCs and MEDCs
Access products and parts of cultures around the world
Able to connect with other people over social media
Awareness for other cultures
Creates a lot of wealth - shared to an extent
Creates inequality for trade workers in less developed countries
Social tension / cultural conflict
By discarding parts of a culture people don't like we do not gain a full understanding of their culture - belittle cultures
Causes of globalisation
Mass communication and technology - world becoming smaller due to social media.
Economics and finance - includes trade and tax - harder to control in a globalised world
E.g. Lewis Hamilton - most successful formula 1 driver registered his plane in the Isle of Man - not actually kept there - only because doesn't have to pay taxes.
Culture - 'pick and mix' approach - dismiss parts of a culture they do not like - do not gain a full understanding.
Reflexive modernisation - respond to the world - dangers faced around the world are more universal and are changing e.g. terrorism used to only be local - responding to local issues.
Cyber attacks are international e.g. presidential election in the USA