Napoleon Forges an Empire (Napoleon Creates an Empire (The Battle of…
Napoleon Forges an Empire
Napoleon Seizes Power
Born in 1769 on the Mediterranean island of Corsica
Went to military school
Became a lieutenant in the artillery
Napoleon joined the army of the new government
Map of Corsica
Hero of the Hour
In October 1795, royalist rebels marched on the National Convention, a government official told Napoleon to defend the delegates
Napoleon and his gunners greeted the thousands of royalists with a cannonade.
The attackers fled. Napoleon Bonaparte became the hero of the hour and was hailed throughout Paris as the savior of the French republic.
Napoleon led a French army against the forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia
He swept into Italy and won a series of remarkable victories
He led an expedition to Egypt but was unable to repeat the successes he had achieved in Europe
His army was pinned down in Egypt, and the British admiral Horatio Nelson defeated his naval forces
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About Horatio Nelson
How would you compare Napoleon’s actions in October 1795 and November 1799?
In 1795, he was kind of handed the job to destroy the royalists. In 1799, he had a lot more political power and was determined
Why was Napoleon called Hero of the Hour?
The Directory had lost control of the political situation and the confidence of the French people
Napoleon's friends urged him to seize political power
His troops surrounded the national legislature and drove out most of its members
The remaining lawmakers voted to dissolve the Directory
They established a group of three consuls, one of whom was Napoleon which he quickly took the title of first consul and assumed the powers of a dictator
Britain, Austria, and Russia joined forces to drive Napoleon from power
Eventually, as a result of war and diplomacy, all three nations signed peace agreements with France
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Why did they join together?
Why did they urge him to do this?
Napoleon Rules France
Napoleon pretended to be the constitutionally chosen leader of a free republic.
In 1800 a vote of the people was held to approve a new constitution
People voted overwhelmingly in favor of the constitution
Restoring Order at Home
Napoleon kept many of the changes that had come with the revolution
He supported laws that would strengthen the central government and achieve goals of the Revolution
He set up an efficient method of tax collection and established a national baking system
These actions promoted sound financial management and better control of the economy
He dismissed corrupt officials and in order to give the government with trained officials he set up Lycées
Lycées were open to male students of all backgrounds
Graduates were appointed to public office to public office on the basis of merit rather than family connections. Answer-
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In general, did Napoleon make the French government stronger or weaker?
Napoleon crowned as Emperor
1804 Napoleon decided to make himself emperor and the French voters supported him
December 2, 1804 Napoleon waked down a long aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris
Pope waited for him with a glistening crown
Thousands watched and the new emperor took the crown and placed it on his own head
This signaled that he was more powerful than the Church, which had traditionally crowned the rulers of France
Napoleon Creates an Empire
Napoleon abandoned his imperial ambitions in the New World
Napoleon focused more on Europe; he wanted to expand his influence further
Napoleon achieved reaching his challenge, in a series of battles
Napoleon's opponents could never predict his next move and they often took heavy loses.
Napoleon's battle successes forced the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia to sign peace treaties.
This success allowed him to build the largest European empire since the Romans
The Battle of Trafalgar
This was the only battle that Napoleon had ever lost.
The Battle of Trafalgar was the most important than
of his victories on land.
The Battle took place in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain.
A British commander, Horatio Nelson, was brilliant in warfare at sea as Nepoleon is on land.
Nelson had even split the French Fleet to capture many enemy ships.
The destruction of the French fleet had two major results. First, it ensured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years. Second, it forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain.
He had to look for another way to control his powerful enemy across the English Channel.
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How did the Battle of Trafalgar show the importance of Naval Power?
During the Battle, Horatio showed strategy when he split the fleet and capture enemy ships
The Battle of Traflager
Loss of American Territories
In 1789, the revolution reached Saint Domingue, and demanded that the National Assembly give them the same privileges as the French.
The enslaved Africans in this colony wanted the same rights; their freedom
There was a civil war, enslaved Africans under L'Ouverture seized control
Napoleon decided to take back the colony in 1801, to restore its productive sugar industry
The French were killed by disease
After failure of the expedition to Saint Domingue, Napoleon offered to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to the US
President Jefferson's administration decided to purchase the land
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How did L’Ouverture’s revolution benefit the United States?
L’Ouverture revolution benefitted the US by selling Louisiana territory.
The French Empire
During the first decade of the 1800s, Napoleon’s victories had given him mastery over most of Europe.
By 1812, the only areas of Europe free from Napoleon’s control were Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire.
In addition to the lands of the French Empire, Napoleon also controlled numerous supposedly independent countries.
These included Spain, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and a number of German Kingdoms in Central Europe. The rulers of these companies were Napoleon's puppets; some, in fact; were members of his family
Furthermore, the powerful countries of Russia, Prussia, and Austria were loosely attached to Napoleon’s empire through alliances.
Although not totally under Napoleon’s control, they were easily manipulated by threats of military action.
The French Empire was huge but unstable. Napoleon was able to maintain it at its greatest extent for only five years—from 1807 to 1812.
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Napoleon wanted to control all of Europe not just be the master of France