NASI LEMAK (Define problem and constraint languages. (Fifth-generation…
Define problem and constraint languages.
Fifth-generation language (5GL)
Computer languages that incorporate the concepts of artificial intelligence
Allow a person to provide a system with a problem and some constraints, and then request a solution
Enable a computer to learn and to apply new information as people do. Rather than coding by keying in specific commands, we would communicate more directly to a computer using natural languages
What distinguishes a lower-level language from a higher-level language?
Programs written in lower level language can run on the same hardware with same configuration, you cannot run them on hardware that has different configuration
Lower level language programs are faster as they do not need to convert, they have less number of syntax, functions, keywords, class libraries
Lower Level language programs are more difficult, there are only two lower level programming languages
Has only 0’s, 1’s
Has some difficult type symbols which are knows as mnemonics
Performance of Low Level languages programs are better
Lower Level language Binary does not need translation as Binary codes are Machine codes and computer understands them without any translations but Assembly needs an Assembler to translate an Assembly program to its equivalent Binary/Machine Code
Lower level languages are not so easy to handle
Lower level languages have less support from professionals(community)
Machine readable form
Human readable form
Programs written in higher level language can run on different hardware with different configuration
Higher level language programs are slower
Higher level language programs are easy to write, read, modify and understand
Performance of higher level language programs are not as good as lower level language
Higher level languages are translated by the compilers or interpreters; sometimes (in case of some programming languages) both are required to get the Object/Binary file
Higher level languages are flexible to read, edit, debug, understand
Higher level languages have less support from professionals(community)
What is the difference between machine and assembly languages?
Second generation of programming language
Use abbreviations or mnemonics such as ADD that are automatically converted to the appropriate sequence of 1s and 0s.
Much easier for humans to understand and to use compared to machine language
Also vary from computer to computer
Example: ADD 210(8,13),02B(4,7)
Must be translated into machine language so that the computer processes them.
First generation of programming language*
Data represented in 1s and 0s
Vary according to make of computer
Example : 111100100111001111010010000100000111000000101011
What is the difference between procedure and task-oriented languages?
Also known as top down languages
Uses list of instructions to tell the computer what to do step-by-step
Solve general problems, widely used to create software applications
Examples: Fortran, COBOL and C
if (score > = 90) grade = ‘A’;
Solve specific problem
Example uses: IFPS (interactive financial planning system) to develop financial models
Mostly use in database management system
Includes query languages and application generators
SELECT client FROM dailyLog WHERE serviceEnd >17
Application generators: program that generates modules of prewritten codes