The Behaviourist Approach (Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) (Learning…
The Behaviourist Approach
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Learning through association.
When two stimuli are repeatedly paired together (an unconditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus). The neutral stimulus produces the same response that was first produced by the unlearned stimulus.
The food (unconditioned stimulus) produces salivation (unconditioned response).
The food (unconditioned stimulus) is paired with a bell (neutral stimulus) which produces salivation as the food is present.
The bell (now conditioned stimulus) produces salivation (now conditioned response.)
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
A form of learning where behaviour is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
= Receiving a reward when a behaviour is performed.
= When an animal/human avoids something unpleasant.
= an unpleasant consequence of behaviour.
Skinner placed rats in cages called Skinner Boxes. When the rat activated a lever within the box it was rewarded with a food pellet. From then on the animal would continue to perform the behaviour.
Doesn't recognise the importance of mental processes in the learning of behaviour.
May apply less to human than animal behaviour.
Ignores influences that free will may have on our behaviour.
Animals were exposed to stressful conditions, which could have changed how they reacted.
Operant conditioning - basis of token economy systems. Which has been used in psychiatric wards.
Classical conditioning - Applied to the treatment of phobias.
Requires less effort from patients.
Brought methods of natural science into psychology. It emphasised the importance of objectivity and replication.