Atomic Theory and Atomic Strucutre
A history of the atom
Dalton, Rutherford, and Bohr were all important scientists who helped discover the atom
Atoms increase as you go down in the periodic table
Atomic number is placed up top. Element symbol in the middle. element name below the element symbol. Atomic mass is all the way below.
Electrons go on the rings of the atom, while protons and neutrons are located inside the nuclues, and give it mass
electrons are negative. Protons are positive. Neutrons are neutral
Counting electrons, protons and neutrons
P= atomic number E=atomic number N= mass number-atomic number
Physical and chemical properties of Metals and Non-Metals
Metals are lustrous,ductile, good conductors of electricity, and have high melting points.
Metals have electropositive characters and easily ionize, and become cations
Non-metals are poor conductors, low melting/boiling points and and lustrous, ductile or maeleble
Non-metals have no tendency to gain electrons, so they become anions
properties of metals, nonmetals and metalloids
Periodic Table: organizes elemts based upon atomic number, electronegativity, ionization or their chemical and physical properties
Ion: an element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons, therefore it has a different charge, from the parent element.
EM Spectrum- a arrangement of electromagnetic waves based on wavelength
Wavelength: distance between a wave
Frequency: number of waves over a certain amount of time
Crest: highest point of a wave. Trough: lowest point of a wave
EM spectrum colors
C= speed of light
J= 1 joule
H= Planck's constant
Periodic table meanings
Periods=number of rings
Groups=similar physical/chemical properties and number of valence elctrons
Valence electrons= outermost electrons that an element posses in its shell
Liquid- takes the shape of an object and has vibrating particles.
Solid- Cannot be compressed, and the atoms are very closely bound.
Gas- Takes the shape of an object, most cant be seen, and the particles are widely dispersed.
Properties of Matter
The compactness of a substance. Density doesn't depend on mass. Therefore, if you were to cut an object in half, it wouldn't alter its density
Buoyancy:The ability for an object to float on a liquid.
Physical properties include: odor, color, density, luster, malleability and ductility.
Chemical properties: Reactivity, ionization, combustability
Extensive properties: Mass, volume and length
Mixtures and solutions
Mixture: able t see different parts of the mix
solution: it is completely uniform and you cant see any chunks
Homogeneous: same throughout the entire substance
Heterogeneous: able to see different parts
Safety in the Laboratory
expressing numbers. big or small, into a decimal form.
Ex. 1.5x10^4, since the exponent is positive, you move it 4 spots to the right and get, 1.5000
Accuracy and Presicion
Accuracy: How close you are to the exact value
Prescion: How consistent a series of values are with each other
Types of Error
2.Systematic Errors and Blunders
Ex. the number 0.00052 has two significant figures, 5 and 2. Trailing zeros in a number containing a decimal point are significant..
System used in scientific study, tht helps verify the work of one scientist with another
qualitative and quantitative data
Control, dependent and independent variables
Metal Reactivity increases from right to left and decreases from top to bottom.
Non-metal reactivity increases from left to right and top to bottom
Ionization energy increases from right to left and bottom to top.
Electron affinity increases from left to right and bottom to top.
Atomic radius increases from top to bottom and decreases from right to left
metallic character increases from right to left and non metallic character increases from left to right
Anion- accepts electrons
Cations- give electrons away
Rules Governing Electron Configuration
Periodic Table subshells
P sublevel, S sublevel, D sublevel, and F sublevel
Electron filling order
Lewis dots: shows valence elctrons of an element, fill in clockwise
Bonding and Naming Compounds
Ionic and covalent
Ionic:high melting point, metal and nonmetal
Covalent; low melting point, nonmetal, nonmetal
Covalent compounds: molecular compounds, organic and consist of nonmetals. Ex. O3 (ozone)
Ionic bonds: Lithium Fluoride, Lithium Chloride
Cation is a positive ion and an anion is a negative ion
Lewis Dots for Anions and Cations
List the cation followed by the anion. 2. draw 8 dots around the anion to show its octet. 3. Place brackets around the symbol. 4. write the charge for each ion outside the brackets. Find a common number and cross out to make the compound neutral.
Ionic naming and formulas
Ca 2+, F-
Use the criss cross method, except when there is a transition metal
Al3 O2 Al2O3
Ionic formula naming chart
Covalent compound naming
Use elements with suffixes as -ide, and elemnt names as mono. di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nano, and deca prefixes
P4S10= tetraphosphorus decasulfide
Covalent Bonds: lines equal 2 valence electrons and dots equal 1 valence electron
Rules: Hydrogen can never go in the middle, carbon will always go in the middle, if you don't have these two elements then the one that is most electronegative goes in the middle
If there is a coefficient then, it will multiply all the smaller exponents of the compound. The large coefficient is the number of molecules.