Globalisation of the Cold War
Globalisation of the Cold War
3 Factions fighting for control.
MPLA (Marxist) supported by the Soviets.
UNITA (Maoist) will be supported by the US.
FNLA (Pro-US) but also supported by China (under Deng Xiao Ping)
June 1974- China send military advisers to the FNLA.
January 1975- USA provide $300,000 in covert funding to the FNLA.
Zaire (Congo) also support the FNLA.
South Africa (RSA) send forces to support the FNLA, due to fear of the MPLA and ANC joining forces to defeat the RSA (White dominated)
MPLA declare victory in March 1976. They create the PRA- Peoples Republic of Angola.
October 1976- Treaty of friendship with the USSR.
By 1988- 52,000 Cuban troops in Angola. They provided advice on economics, health and education.
Colonised by the Portuguese, in 1974 they promised independence.
Spring 1975- Civil War breaks out in Angola.
David Ortega led a left wing group called the Sandinistas. They overthrow the dictator Samoza, June 1979.
March 1981, CIA trained Nicaraguan exiles, known as the "Contras" so they could invade and take over Nicaragua.
However the Contras were known for their criminal activities. Congress stop supporting the Contras, however Reagan sells arms to Iran and diverts the money to the Contras.
Coup in Grenada 1983 by a pro-left group. They ask for assistance from the USSR and Cuba.
Reagan assembles 7000 invasion force. "Rescue Mission" for US medical students, the USSR stop arms reduction talks.
Margaret Thatcher was furious as Grenada was a part of the Commonwealth and Reagan didn't discuss this with the UK.
December 1979, Soviets invade Afghanistan.
4th of January 1980- Carters Address. Led to the Carter Doctrine. Deferred further action on cultural and economic exchanges. Major restrictions on Soviet fishing privileges. Ban on the sale of high technology to the USSR . Embargo on grain sales. US military and economic assistance to Pakistan.
The Carter Doctrine. An American commitment into preventing any further soviet advance into the Persian Gulf area and Southeast Asia.Therefore a focus on building US strategic focus. Also to reinforce relations with China.
Carter went on to announce an increase in the defence budget for 1981.
The Soviet Union were allies with the PDPA (Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan)
This faction was led by Hafizullah Amin. The soviets were cautious about him as they saw him as unpredictable and would eventually would betray the soviets for the US.
USSR interests; A shared border stretching 2500 kilometres. Brezhnev saw Afghanistan as an interest in USAs geostrategic power. He wanted Afghanistan to remain a buffer zone.
March 1980, Archbishop was murdered when saying mass.
Carter gave aid to the El Salvador military that had killed the archbishop and 3 US nuns.
The aftermath of the second world war, the British unintentionally set a conflict between Ethiopia and Somalia.
Somalia invade Ogaden (Ethiopian territory) in July 1977
In 1974, The Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie had been overthrown by Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam, he established a Marxist-Leminist dictatorship.
November 1977, Castro decided to assist revolutionary movements by sending troops to Ethiopia. (Brezhnev supported this)
February 1978, 15,000 Cuban soldiers in Ethiopia.
US had business interests in copper, silver and telecommunications.
Salvador Allende, 1970 a left wing coalition. The US saw Allende as another Castro.
The CIA gave the US embassy $250,000 to help get rid of Schneider (the leader of Chile's military). He was assassinated.
Allende nationalises the copper industry.
November 1971, Castro visited. He trained Allende's bodyguards.
1970-73 CIA paid Chilean truckers to cause chaos in protest.
General Pinochet is put in charge of the military, Allende wanted a stronger military. However Pinochet creates a coop and kills Allende and makes himself leader.