PRIMARY DATA AND INTERVIEWS (Non-structured (non-standarized): quali!…
PRIMARY DATA AND INTERVIEWS
an objective approach is and a method to collect data from interviewees that are external to reality. the answers are treated as factual. A subjective approach refers to the perspective that views about the world and the social construction
Structured interviews (interviewer-completed questionnaires)
based on a standard and predetermined set of questions. Quantifiable data
Descriptive study: identify general patterns.
Non-structured (non-standarized): quali!
Semi-structured interviews: list of themes and key questions that could be asked. is open, allowing new ideas to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says ,explore specific themes
Explanatory study (understand the relationship between variables ) and (exploratory: what is happening, seek new insight, provide researcher with background or contextual material, inductive approach) amd evaluative (relationship understanding)
Unstructured or in-depth interviews: informal, in depth view of on a general area. The interviewee talks freely about certain events. Used to develop theory
Informant interview: the perceptions of the interviewee guide the way of how the interview is undertaken
Respondent interview: the interviewer exerts greater direction over the interview
Purpose: exploratory, causality between two variables, understand the reasons for the attitudes and opinions of the participants,
Natural data (data observed from real every day conversations) Contrived data (data tha tresult from an experiment, confucted by a researcher)
Reliability and dependability: the lack of standardization can decrease this as alternative researchers could reveal different information
Interviewer bias: when the interviewee's responses become biased because of the interviewers comments, tone and non-verbal behaviour
Interviewees bias- response bias: created by the perceptions of the interviewee on the interviewer. Interviewee's sensitivity to certain topics can create a partial picture of the situation.
Participation bias: can be developed by the time consuming nature and the decreasing willingness to take part by some participants.
Cultural differences: It may change the willingness of the interviewee to say things. And how the researcher interprets and understands the answers and influences the questions
cannot be used for statistical generalizations due to small non-probability samples.
How to overcome these issues?
findings of non-standardized interviews are not intended to be repeatable as they reflect reality at the time the interviews were conducted.
Cultural reflexity should be obtained. That is reflecting on the nature of the relationship between you and the intended participants and how different and similar cultural customs may affect your interactions
The first response would be to examine the nature of the cases used. Interviewing a wide cross-section of participants will create represnetative sample of your case
Base your research on existing theories (test the theory's applicability and advance theoretical propostions.
the researcher should provide a full description of everything for the transferability. (Same results by different people conducting)
Critical incident technique: participants are asked to describe in detail a relevant critical incident.
Types of questions
Open questions: define and describe an event / situation
Probing questions: explore the responses that are important for the research topic. (special focus / further explanation)
Specific and closed questions: introductory questions, obtain specific information or a confirmation of a fact / opinion.
interviews conducted with two or more participants
Participants in a group interview are more likely to participate as they receive it more like an instruction than having the complete choise of their own.
The researcher should undertake multiple interviews , If there are no any new information, the researcher has reached saturation
the researcher's role is to make sure that all participants have the chance to give their responses to certain themes or questions. It is usually unstructured but can also be structured in terms of topics and the depth of it .
groups where the topic is clearly defined and the focus is to enable and to record the interactive discussions between the interviewees.
positivist and critical realist researchers use focus groups to encourage interactions between the interviewees to get an idea of their pre-held views about this specific topic.
The researcher leadig the focus group is called moderator or facilitator. The tasks are to keep the group within the boundaries of the topic being discussed , generate interest in the topic and encourage group discussion while being neutral himself.
Participants are chosen via non-probability sampling as they are chosen to similar characteristics that are relevant.
Internet-mediated or electronic interviews
interviews conducted via internet and organizations' intranet and can be held in real time (synchonous) and offline (asynchronous) . Email interviews are generally asynchronous because there are usually time gaps. Internet messaging is a synchronous interview as the technology trasmits real-time information.