set of rules based on socially or culturally shared beliefs
negative consequences: punished, marginalized, stigmatised
positive consequences: seen as creative and affecting change in the society
The Study of Culture
Plan done in advance
Assumes behaviour is universal; applicable global
Standardised tests and theories from researcher's culture is applied to the locals
Data gathered as soon as researchers arrive on the field
Research questions developed after getting familiar with the community
Findings applied to the local community
Develops tests in consultation with local experts to apply to the community. Theories are generated after spending time within the culture.
Collects data only after they are familiar with the local culture.
defined culture as “a dynamic system of rules, explicit and implicit, established by groups in order to ensure their survival, involving attitudes, values, beliefs, norms, and behaviours”
described culture as “mental software”, that is, cultural schemas that have been internalized so that they influence thinking, emotions, and behaviour.
beliefs, attitudes and values
what we easily see as different when we have contact with another group
The process of adopting or internalizing the schemas of your culture
The process by which someone comes into contact with another culture and begins to adopt the norms and behaviours