Geography Mind Map (GEO BASICS (Five Themes of Geography (Location (Where…
Geography Mind Map
Five Themes of Geography
Where Is It?
Relative: Cardinal Directions
North, South, East, West
Northwest, Southwest, Northeast, Southeast
Absolute Location: Address/Longitude and latitude
Human Environmental Interaction
How do humans effect the environment? How does it effect us?
How do humans move about and interact with the earth?
Whats It Like There?
Climate/Weather: the state of the atmosphere
Politics: The debates, conflicts, and issues in government
Religion/Culture: Beliefs, rituals, history
Tool: Thematic Map: A map layered with information that tells you things about a certain place
Specific groups based on location, physical land marks, and other grouping aspects.
Formal: Measuable Charecteristics
Functional: system of interaction from a set center
Perceptual: grouped by peoples feelings/attitudes toward something
Five Factors of Climate
Orographic Effect: Occurs when oceans are next to mountains, causes lots of rain by ocean and rain shadow or dry climate on the other side.
Elevation: three degrees cooler every thousand feet you rise
Closeness to large bodies of water: Water moderates temperatures.
Ocean Currents: Warmer currents, warmer climates, more hurricanes
Latitude: The more latitude increases the more temperature decreases
Map Projections and Distortion
Eckehert IV projection: Shows size but distorts shape.
Goode's Homolosine projection: Shows continents but distorts oceans
Lambert Projection: Shows Poler areas that are distorted by other maps.
Mercator projection: Shows direction but distorts size
GPS: Global Positioning System. Formed by satellites that orbit the Earth to pinpoint exact locations and help us find them.
GIS: Geographic information system. Layers information on top of a map, like weather patterns or political views.
Economy: The wealth and resources of a country or region
Industrialization: the development of industries in a country or region on a wide scale
Less developed countries:: Countries that are going through their industrial revolution
Human Development Index: A system that compiles lots of information in order to rank countries in order of development
More developed countries: Countries that have already gone through their industrial revolution
Gross Domestic Product: the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year.
GDP per capita: measure of a country's economic output that accounts for its number of people
Secondary sector: Takes raw materials and makes them into things; manufauring
Tertiary sector: Transport and distribution of products
Primary sector: Resources in the raw
Based on certain features like rivers, tropics, mountains, animals, etc, some areas are less geographically lucky. This leads to exploitation and, eventually, never developing.
GEO POLITICS: Politics influenced by geographic factors
Immigrants: People migrating from one place to another
Pull Factors: Things that pull people towards from a country or place
Sovereignty: A self governing state
Push Factors: Things that push people away from a country or place
Asylum: The protection granted by a nation to someone who has left their native country as a political refugee
Refugees: A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.
Ethnonationalism: Support for the political interests of a particular ethnic group
Types of States
Elongated state: A long, thin state
Fragmented state: A state that is separated by a physical or human barrier
Perforated state: Completely surrounds another state
Enclave state: A state that is completely surrounded by another state
Prorupted state: Otherwise fairly compact with a large perturbing extension
Exclave state: Part of the territory is separated from the main body if the country to which hit belongs
Compact state: The distance from the center to any boundary is about the same
Boundaries: Which land belongs to which people?
Types of Boundries
Physical Political Boundaries: Separate based on natural features
Ocean Boundaries: How much people can claim the water around a country
UNCLOS Treaty: UN Convention On the Law of the Seas
Contiguous zone: Up to 24 miles from coast, states can extort limited control to prevent or punish "infringements of its customs"
Exclusive Economic Zone: Within 200 miles of coast, control all economic resources, but can't prevent loitering or passage.
Territorial waters: Costal states have compleate sovernty up to 12 miles from shore
International waters: Outside of everyones claimed water, belongs and can be used by anyone.
Median-line principle: If two countries are close enough that there is not enough space for above process, the water will be split evenly.
Geometric Boundaries: Strait lined boundaries that don't relate to culture or physical territories.
DEMOGRAPHY: The study of patterns in human populations
Population Density: How many people are living in a certain area
Rate of Natural Increase: How fast is the number of humans going up?
Birth Rate: Number of live births per thousand population
Death Rate: Number of deaths per one thousand population
Life expectancy: How long is a person supopsed to live based of where they live and who they are?
Stable Growth: Little change in the lower section of the pyramid. Found in developed/ middle income countries.
Declining growth: The pyramid is top heavy, population not increasing but decreasing. Found in developed countries.
Rapid Growth: Large base, smaller as you go up. Mostly underdeveloped contries
Total Fertility Rate: The number of children born per 1,000 woman
Infant mortality rate: the number of deaths under one year of age occurring per 1,000 births
Economy in Demography
Subsistence economy: An economy not run on money but rather goods for trade.
Demographic Transition Model: Graph that represents population change over time.
Stage Two: Early Expanding- High birth rate, falling death rate, rising population
Stage Three: Late Expanding- Birth rates Falling, death rates falling, population increase slows
Stage One: High Stationary-High birth and death rates, low poulation
Stage Four: Low Stationary- Low birth rates, low death rates, stable population
Dependency ratio: number of dependent people divided by the number of independent/ working people.