17-2 The Northern Renaissance (The Legacy of the Renaissance (The…
17-2 The Northern Renaissance
The Elizabethan Age
The Elizabethan Age was named after Queen Elizabeth I.
This age began when the Renaissance spread to England in the mid-1500s.
The most famous writer in the Elizabethan Age was William Shakespeare.
Many people regard Shakespeare as the greatest playwright of all time.
He often drew inspiration and plots from the classics.
His works showed masterful command of the English language and a deep understanding of human beings.
His plays revealed the souls of men and women through scenes filled with dramatic conflict.
Many of his plays examine human flaws.
What are some examples of human flaws?
He had one of his characters express the Renaissance's high view of human nature.
Some of his most famous plays include Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, A Midsummer Night's Dream, and The Taming of the Shrew
What are some other famous writers of this age?
William Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon.
Stratford-upon-Avon was a small town 90 miles northwest of London.
He was writing poems and plays in London by 1592.
He would eventually perform at the Globe Theater.
William Shakespeare's Life
A Few of William Shakespeare's Poems
Queen Elizabeth I reigned from 1558 - 1603.
She was well-educated and spoke French, Italian, Latin, and Greek.
She wrote music and poetry.
She supported the development of art and literature.
How did Elizabeth I contribute to the Renaissance?
She contributed by giving money to artists and writers. She also wrote her own poems and music.
How did the Elizabethan Age reflect the values of the Italian Renaissance?
It reflected the values of the Italian Renaissance by still focusing on art, literature, and human nature instead of the Church.
The Northern Renaissance
The population of Northern Europe began to bounce back from the decline that it took from the bubonic plague by 1450.
Many cities grew very rapidly after the hundred years war ended in 1453. Many merchants became very wealthy.
This wealth allowed them to sponsor artists. As wealth began to grow in other parts of Northern Europe, so did patronage for artists.
English and French Kings supported artists by purchasing their art.
Francis I invited Leonardo da Vinci to retire in France, and hired artists to rebuild his castle in Fontainebleau.
This castle became a showcase for Renaissance art.
Leonardo Da Vinci
As Ideas spread North from Italy, they mixed with ideas from the North.
Northern artists were especially interested in realism. Some northern humanists developed plans for social reform based on Judeo-Christian Values.
How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?
Why did an increase in wealth affect the spread of the renaissance?
Northern Writers Try to Reform Society
Italian humanists big interest was reviving classical languages and classical texts.
When the ides reached the North, people used them to look at the traditional teachings of the church.
The northern humanists were critical of the failure of the Christian Church to encourage people to live Cristian lives.
The criticism produced new movement called Christian humanism.
The focus of Christian Humanism was to reform society.
One importance was education, which was given to women and founded schools attended by both boys and girls.
Best known of the christian humanists were Desiderius Erasmus of Holland and Thomas More of England. The two were close friends.
1509- Erasmus wrote his most famous work,
The Praise of Folly.
Erasmus believed in a Christianity of the heart, not one of ceremonies or rules.
In order to improve society, all people should study the bible.
2 more items...
The book made fun of greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests.
Printing Spreads Renaissance Ideas
The Chinese had created block printing. In which printers will carve pictures are words into a wooden block. And then they will ink the block in black, and then used it to print on parchment/paper.
Around the year of 1045, Bi Sheng invented movable type, or a separate piece of type that everyone in that language could use.
The Chinese writing system contains thousands of different characters, so most Chinese printers found the Movable type, impractical.
However, the method will so be practical for the Europeans, because their language has small amounts of characters.
Gutenburg Improves the Printing press.
During the 13th century, block printing had spread from China to Europe. European printers used block printing to make whole pages to turn into books. However, this process was to slow for the Renaissance to demand for knowledge, information, and books.
Around 1440 Johann Gutenburg, a craftsman from Mainz, Germany, developed a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way.
The process made it easier to made it easier to make books quickly and cheaply. The printing press enabled it to produce many copies at once.
Why do you think the Bible was the first book printed with movable type?
Answer - I think the Bible was the first to be printed is because than everyone could interpret the Bible in their ways, and so everyone can read it.
Artistic Ideas Spread
After a Southern Italian King tried to invade Northern Italy, many artists fled to Northern Europe to be in a safer place.
They brought styles and techniques from the Italian Renaissance, and these mixed with other artist's styles.
Specialized in painting portraits in almost photographic detail. Moved to England where he painted portraits of King Henry and other English Royal family members.
Traveled to Italy to study in 1494. When he returned to Germany, he produced woodcuts and engravings that portrayed classical myths or realistic landscapes.
Wealthy Merchant families helped make Flanders the artistic center of Northern Europe.
Jan van Eyck
Interested in realistic details. He was very skillful in portraying large numbers of people, and captured scenes from everyday life like weddings and dances.
What can be learned about people's daily lives from examining the painting "Peasant Wedding"?
Used newly found oil paints to develop techniques that are still used today. His paintings displayed unusually realistic details.
What factors might have influenced the trend toward a more realistic style of art?
The Legacy of the Renaissance
The Renaissance marked a period of time where people took a break from the Church and focused instead on art and social ideals.
Changes in the Arts
Art took on techniques from Greek and Rome.
Portraits became more realistic.
Artists created secular and religious works.
Writers began using vernacular languages.
The arts praised individual achievement.
In what ways did renaissance art connect to the past?
Some pieces of renaissance art had some religious works. They also took on techniques from ancient Greek and Rome.
Renaissance Art and Greek and Rome
Changes in Society
Printing made information available and inexpensive.
Books were more available creating an increased desire to learn and a rise in literacy.
Published accounts of discoveries led to more discoveries.
Laws and the rights of people were clearer.
Reforms changed views on how life should be lived.
People began to question political structures and religious practices.
Democratic ideas arose in this time.
What do you think allowed democratic ideas to arise?
Movable type impacted life and society.
How did printing and publishing affect social reforms?
Printing and publishing affected social reform by allowing ideas to be spread faster and allow reforms to take hold and spread faster.
Overview of the European Renaissance