APES Unit 2 (Chapter 5 Evolution of Biodiverisity (Genetic diversity…
APES Unit 2
Chapter 5 Evolution of Biodiverisity
Genetic diversity comes with different kinds of components. Genes, genotype, mutation, phenotype, and recombination. the genes are the cells located on each chromosome. The phenotype is the features shown (expressed) while the genotypes only the complete set of genes in an individual. Mutation is a random change in a genetic code. recombination is when the chromosomes are duplicated in meiosis and mitosis creating a new biodiversity.
There is more to add to the random processes as it includes mutation, genetic drift, Bottleneck effect, and founder effect. Mutation is the change in the genetic code which is randomly chosen and evolves every 1 million years. Genetic drift changes the composition of a species due to random mating. The bottleneck effect is when the population is reduced due to drastic changed/ events. The founder's effect are the survivors in which make up a small number of population.
Evolution is the change of genetic composition over time. There are two types of evolution; micro and macro. Micro is the evolution below the species level and gives rise to the diversity of the species. Macro gives a growth into new species or a new generation of a species family. This event occurs in three primary mechanisms, artificial selection; humans choose what the species breed, natural selection; environment determines which would survive and reproduce and Random Prosses; is the random change in a type of species which can happen because of the three important effects.
Niches. There are three types of niches; realized, generalist, and specialist. Realized are the biotic and abiotic factors in which species live. The generalist is where the species lives under a wide range of conditions and the specialist are the special ecosystems in which a certain type a species can live.
There are two types of diversity; species and genetic diversity. Species diversity is the variety of species in an ecosystem. Genetic goes further into the variety of genes within an organism. Along with this comes SPecies richness and evenness. The richness is the total number of species while the evenness measures if the ecosystem is numerically dominated by one species or a similar number of individuals.
There are two main concepts of the cause of speciation, allopatric and sympatric speciation. Allopatric is when new species are created by geographic isolation or reproductive isolation. Sympatric is the evolution of one species into two in the presence of reproductive isolation.
Fossils are an important product of the lifespan of a species and also the prediction of the cause of extinction. There are a total of 5 global mass extinction and according to scientist, and we are living in the 6th mass extinction.
Chapter 4 Global Climates and Biomes
The biomes become very important in this chapter as each biome has their distinct characteristics. There are a total of 9 unique biomes we have.
Thermohaline circulation is an oceanic circulation that tends to mix the deep waters and the upper waters in order to move heat and nutrients through the globe. In other words, this is a very great advantage to spread nutrients throughout the ecosystems and overall the globe.
The Coriolis effect is the movement of the earth in another word its rotation making everything to move as it changes. The seasons depend on the earth angle and if located at the equator the rotation will be faster as in the poles you won't move at all.
There are a total of 5 layers of the earth's surface. From the lowest land surface; Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, and exosphere which is the point where satellites are located. Each of these layers has their distinctive role. The troposphere contains all living things on earth, the stratosphere is the less dense and it is where the ozone layer is located in which protects all living things on earth from UV radiation. The mesosphere is the middle layer and becomes denser and forms ice crystals which prevent meteors from entering. The thermosphere blocks UV radiation and its impossible to breathe at this point. The exosphere its the highest and satellites are located at this point.
The amount of energy earth receives from the sun is called albedo in which measures the amount of energy is absorbed by solar energy. Depending on the Earths angle it's going to determine how much energy will be entering the earth surface
Also, the comparison of streams and rivers vs Lakes and ponds was to be comprehended in this chapter. The zones in which lakes and oceans had and the role of each zone.
Chapter 3 Ecosystems
The ecosystem productivity or in other words the GPP and NPP each have their role in the ecosystem. The GPP measures how much of the producers collect the suns energy via photosynthesis. On the other hand NPP Is the energy captured minus the energy respired by the producers (respiration takes place in NPP)
Energy flows through the ecosystem by the 2nd law of thermodynamics. Only one percent of the suns energy is received into the producer and the producer to the next trophic level is 10 percent efficient.
A biosphere is what overall all ecosystems share and have as one. They all include the distinct cycle called Biogeochemical cycles. These cycles evolve chemicals and different kinds of nutrients which make up living organisms.
Trophic levels: They are a total of five trophic levels which include, heterotrophs, Primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, and quaternary consumers. All have their own way of consuming and obtaining energy from whats called the food chain.
Cycles: They are a total of 3 major cycles. The hydraulic, carbon, and nitrogen cycle each playing a distinctive important role. The water cycle (hydrologic) plays a role in the precipitation and its process ass it narrows up by evapotranspiration again. The carbon cycle plays a deeper role into how carbon cycles from photosynthesis onto the ground and back onto the plant's combustion by fozilization.The Nitrogen cycle Limits nutrients from the producers and makes acids and proteins which make up the DNA and RNA.