cognitive psychology - focuses on the mental processes how one thinks, perceives, remembers, learns
and eventually, makes decisions.
focus is on how individuals acquire, process and store information/knowledge. “all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated,
stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they
operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations”
whereby the interaction between the learner and the surrounding environment influences and affects the learner’s behaviour and his/her knowledge of the environment.
The learners’ knowledge of their surrounding environment may affect their future learning capabilities the more they know of their environment, the better the learners can become in terms of learning.
based on the paradigm that argues for the development of learner’s learning strategies.
how learners structure their learning and their learning environment leads to learner’s greater understanding of what they learn.
Hence, it is postulated that knowledge is not solely acquired but something that is created and constructed by the learners based on their experiences and prior knowledge, i.e., what learners
Based on the above principles, a teacher should design learning and learning environments that facilitate learners to explore knowledge formation and construction.
Teachers should be creating activities that require learners to think, organise, create and evaluate knowledge and information.
In short, teachers should be creating teaching activities that facilitate learner’s mental processes.
perspective of professional development, a teacher’s learning should be based on principles similar to those described above.
Their experiences and prior knowledge are valuable, and can be used as a source of learning and improvement.
Professional development activities should stimulate teacher’s thinking skills that would be useful to develop learning activities that enhance their learners’ learning and understanding of what is being learnt.
Experts in the field of education have always emphasised this point the professional development of teachers should benefit pupils and school