The citizens of West Africa had a rich and fluctuated history and culture some time before European colonies arrived. They had a variety of ways of ruling including kingdoms, city-states and others, each with their own dialects and culture.
The domain of Songhai and the kingdoms of Mali, Benin and Kongo were expansive and effective with rulers heading complex political structures administering a huge number of people. In different territories, political frameworks were smaller and weaker, in others it was very expanded and strong
Art, education and medicine were noticeable between Africans. Africans were particularly talented in subjects like pharmaceutical, science and cosmology. They also depended in different minerals like bronze, ivory, gold and earthenware for both local utilize and exchange.