Communication and Culture Post Modernism (Jean Baudrillard (1985)…
Communication and Culture
the idea that ...
Everything has been done before so has to be repeated and that the boundaries between reality and fantasy have been blurred.
Fragmentation and discontinuity
when storylines and characterisation are broken up, disturbed and don't follow the usual pattern
a copy or thinly veiled version of something which makes fun of the original
when a piece of art or literature is self consciously doing the opposite of what it appears to be doing.
Reflexivity and self consciousness
when a TV programme uses references to itself or its characters
The reference or direct use of one text within another.
It is used to...
draw in audiences
increase profit for the company
make people feel intelligent for 'getting the joke'
allow filmmakers to highlight people who have influenced their work.
The person we would like to be. This can be split in to intellectual self, emotional self and bodily self. Advertisers play on this idea to attract us to their products.
The imitation of the operation of a real - world process or system over time
Copies that depict things that either had no original to begin with, or that no longer have an original
Jean Baudrillard (1985)
Postmodernism blurs the boundaries between reality and a simulation of reality
We now exist in a state of hyper -reality, where the distinction between reality and representation break down.
The main example of this is contemporary media ( including tv, film, print and the internet) which are responsible for blurring the lines between goods that are needed and goods for which need is created by commercial images.
Baudrillard - parody and bricolage
He saw parody as a natural development in the life cycle of any genre : a genre will always reach a stage where it begins to be parodied. He didn't see this as a negative step but rather a form of homage and intertextuality.
Bricolage is able to create new meanings from the old while pastiche is just referencing the old for what it means.
We do not experience the real world but only the world we see in media texts. Subsequently, these mediated signs become more real for us than reality itself.
Reality has been replaced by a hyper reality.
The audience becomes depressed because reality is not as good as its simulation ( for example christmas adverts, publicity material for Disney Land, Facebook profiles, magazine profiles etc.
Frederic Jameson (1984)
recycling the past
Jameson and Pastiche
He says that we are over familiar with the forms of mass culture, which means its impossible to be original. We can only recycle the conventions of earlier texts - which he calls the cannibalisation of the past.
Jean Francois Lyotard (1979)
The decline of meta - narratives
An "incredulity towards meta narratives" i.e. a distrust of universal theories of knowledge.
Dominic Strinati (2004)
5 main features of a postmodern text.
An emphasis on style at the expense of substance and content
The breakdown of the distinction between high and popular culture
a copy of something intended to be a tribute
The dominant social idea of what makes someone successful
The celebration of variety and diversity - especially crossing the boundary between high and popular culture.
An artistic demonstration of respect or dedication to another art work or artist, writer or director.
Adverts create an alluring fictional world; they invite potential customers to adapt an attractive character within this imagined world and hint that buying a product or service may open the door between the real world and the fictional world
a collection or putting together of images, ideas etc to make something new
Erving Goffman's concept that we attempt to convey our identity and personality to those around us e.g through our choice of clothing and accesories etc
Small, narrative personalised stories that come out of each individual person's life experience
Every time we encounter a media text we are presented with a version of reality that we interpret and the way that text is presented or manipulated affects our interpretation.
The practice of mediation is often designed to be transparent - we do not notice it and we are fooled in to thinking we are experiencing some kind of reality. The three aspects of mediation to look out for are...
selection - editing and controlling content
organisation - the construction of elements
focusing - concentration on certain aspects while ignoring others
Mikhail Bakhtin (1984)
parody is a natural development in the life cycle of any genre
Meta narratives Lyotard (1979) Strinati (2004)
These are the big stories in society that we use in order to understand our reality e.g. religious texts like the Bible and the Qu'ran, political texts like Karl Marx's 'Das Capital' and big concepts like love, justice, freedom etc
The state of things as they actually exist, as opposed to an idealistic or notional idea of them.
9/11 and hyper reality
The events of 9/11 were presented to us using language and images that we know from films.
Media coverage became saturated with references to cinema; the real attacks were put into the familiar frameworks of Hollywood cinema and told via a narrative.