EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE LAYERS (Atmosphere gases (The Earth's…
EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE LAYERS
The Earth's atmosphere layers are similar to the layers in the interior of the Earth.
Each layer of the layers are separated by an increasing or decreasing temperature of the gases in the layer.
The tropopause, stratopause, mesopause are areas where two atmospheric layers gradually transition from one layer into another layer.
There are four major layers of atmosphere above the Earth that are separated by temperature.
The concentration of atmosphere gases varies depending on the atmosphere layers.
The troposphere contains primarily nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%).
The remaining 1% of the atmosphere is trace gases. The stratosphere contains a layer of relatively high concentrations of ozone.
The lower part of the thermosphere is the ionosphere. This layer has free ions and electrons that are the result of ionization of gas molecules.
As the distance increases from Earth the atmosphere becomes thinner as the molecules move further and further apart.
Lower boundary is the surface of the Earth. The upper boundary varies between 7 km (23,000 ft.) above the poles and 14 km (56,000 ft.) above the equator.
This is the layer of the atmosphere where we live. The troposphere contains 75% of total mass of the atmosphere. The air cools 6.5°C for each kilometre above sea level
Most of the energy from the sun travels through the atmosphere and is absorbed by the ground.
The ground heats up warming the air above creating air currents.
The rising of warm air and falling of cooler air creates convection currents that cause air circulation in this layer of the atmosphere.
The mesosphere is the third layer of the atmosphere.
The temperature begins to drop in this layer until it reaches minus 90°C.
The upper region of the mesosphere is the coldest region of the Earth's atmosphere layers.
It extends from the top of the stratopause to an altitude between 80 and 85 km.
Thermosphere (Ionosphere and exosphere) Mena
Location of layer above Earth: 640 kilometers (400 miles; 2,100,000 feet)
The thermosphere has two layers of Earths atmosphere layers. The atmosphere is very thin in the thermosphere. The space shuttles orbit in the thermosphere.
The layer has free ions and electrons that are the result of ionization of gas particles.
Radio waves bounce off the ionosphere allowing communication with countries overseas.
The aurora borealis, (northern lights) form when electrically charged particles from the sun collide with particles in the ionosphere producing multicolored lights.
The temperature in this region can reach 1500°C (2,730 degrees F).
The air particles are so far apart that a person would not feel warm because of the low density of the particles.
Stratosphere 7-17 km to 50 km- (Mana)
The lower boundary is the tropopause which separates the stratosphere from the troposphere.
The bottom layer of the stratosphere remains constantly at approximately 60°C.
Jet streams form here as cold air from the poles meets the warmer air rising from the equator.
It is a strong eastward moving wind that blows horizontally around the Earth.
The upper boundary of the stratosphere is 50 km (32 miles; 170,000 feet).
The stratosphere contains the ozone layer. Ozone is created when radiation from the sun splits two-atom oxygen molecules into separate atoms.
They combine with other two-atom molecules to form a three-atom molecule. The layer acts as a shield from ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
The upper part of the stratosphere warms up to approximately 18°C as the ozone reacts with ultraviolet radiation giving off enough heat to warm this layer.