period 3: third wave civilizations 600 CE-1450 CE (JAPAN (prince shotoku…
period 3: third wave civilizations
600 CE-1450 CE
politically divided by persian and roman empires
arab tribes: cultural unity, political disunity. desert semi-nomads.
arab society was based on extended family
tribes and clans... tribes within a clan would war but unite to fight other clans
raids were normal, had laws...if broken a blood feud began
blood feud: if your tribe had an injury, that whole tribe must suffer.
some tribes were jews other pagans...knew christianity bc trade with christians
no overarching king or government
traded widely in middle east and east africa, mainly with camel caravans.
mecca was the main city, trading hub
holy even before islam
the kabob or cube is in mecca
many idols in kaba the focus of arab religion, began to believe the spefic GOD allah was special--> began to represent the abrahamic god of jews and christians
MOHAMMAD; Prophet...trader. (570-632)
sometimes meditated in cave...overwhelmed by darkness then angel gabraiel came,,, tell everyone to stop worshipping idols... allah (submit to the will of god) only
preaches this in mecca and is driven out to MEDINA (hijra-->religious pilgrimage)
birth of islamic community ir umma.... beginning of islamic lunar colander.
led raid against his clan's caravans (624-630) muslims vs meccas for persecuting muslims,,,, generated wealth often led own armies
muslims peacefully take mecca... destroy kaba's idols, and consecrate it for allah
mohammad dies and is buried in medina CE 632
ISLAM POST MOHAMMAD
five pillars of islam: 1. profession of faith. 2.prayer five times a day, facing mecca...friday is the holy day no formal clergy (iman)..no centralized authority, 3. giving to charity (2.5%). 4. fasting during ramadan. 5. pilgrimage to mecca (hajj) everyones goes , dress in white, community
caliph: the successor of mohammad as leader of ummah..political and military leader... only mohammad has religious power
abu bakr: one of first converts to islam... mohammad married his daughter
ruled 2 years before he died. but he expanded the islamic empire to all of arabia, conquerored persian empire. took the levant from roman empire.
by 640s all the persian empire conquered
persia accepted islam but not arab culture.
caliphate: area ruled by caliph
caliph uthman: (3rd caliph) pissed people off, wealth, dipped into treasury.
egyptians assassinated him... ali begins caliph 656.
ali got assassinated. new caliphate centered on damascus.
ali... son in law and cousin of mohammad.... but abu bakr became caliph.
Sunni vs Shia--> who is the caliph. sunni is majority.
shia believes that the caliph is the descendent of mohammad (by blood)
iran is a shia majority country.
shia believe in 12 immense... 12 disappeared as a child.. to a hidden dimension, will return and set the world right.
umayyad caliphate: in damascus.. transforms arabs to civilized people. arbic language spread. dome of the rock in jersesula, islam becomes assimilated into the rich mesopotamia. expands through north africa, into spain
battle of tours: against frankish king... defeated islamic armies, forcing them to retreat into spain
islamic spain: al-andlus.. corodoba was the beautiful capital. grand mosque. religious tolerance.
expanded east to india/pakistan/indus river valley and central asia
battle of talas: china vs arabs... arabs win but push no further due to resistance.
abbasid caliphate: defeats umaayyad (750)
founds bagdhad. lots of slavery, but revolted in zany rebellion... african slaves were too risky.
provinces ruled by royal governors, viziers were the persian advisors to caliph.
barid: elaborate postal system intelligence network, like pony express
intellectual flourishing... bagdad
translated greek classics, preserved them.
spread mathematic advances of gupta india. great math advancements.
ISLAMIC GREEN REVOLUTION: new crops and farming techniques, in mesopotamia: cotton, rice, sugar cane, spinach, artichoke, lemon... through irrigation... qanat--underground irrigation system.
Seljuk Turks: conquer the middle east, restore islam to its glory.. sunni, restore true lislam over shia... sultan:rulers... with caliphs as figureheads
battle of manzikert: turks crush byzantine empire, take anatolia and levant... anatolia becomes turkish and islamic
arabs, persians and turks are largest ethnic groups in middle east today.
china's era of disunity (220-589) three kingdoms... buddhism roots itself in china
sui dynasty: united china in 589 ce
major canal building... grand canal linked north to south. long distant trade in china. tried to conquer korera
Tang Dynasty (618-907)
chang'an is capital, contemporary of islam, expands into central asia, the whole population moves south (greener, wetter)...imperial links
strict curfew imposed.. walls around neighborhoods.
very open to foreign country in tang dynasty, lots of foreigners lived in china
the great age of chinese buddhism.... lots of charity
most famous for literature...daoism influence on poetry
buddhism influenced the golden age of buddhism.
confucianism turned against buddhism
forced monks and nuns to stop... destroy some monasteries temples .. never the same prominence in china
au lushan rebellion (755-763)... foreign mercenaries called. tang won, but decline, lost central asia
two more revolutions....
song dynasty (960-1279)
long but weak, not a golden age politically. danger from nomadic steppe.
Jurchen attack Khitan peoples and then take northern china. founded Jin Dynasty, divided china... many fled south
economy: richest in the world. new champa rice from vietnam. population of world in china 1/3
heavy industry of iron and steel
hindu indian and muslim arab traders.
invented compass, gunpowder.
examination system of confucian returns
social mobility high bc anyone could take the exams but only educated people could succeed
the great era of foot binding. the epitome of female beauty
sun origin, land of the rising sun.
shinto: japans traditional nature religion shrines, polytheism, pagan.
started much later... 6th century, claimed to be descended from sun goddess
prince shotoku (572-622)
sought to make japanese state like chinese
sent cultural embassies to sui china.
embraced buddhism and confucianism
zen buddhism: more philosophical, meditation
pureland buddhism: est 1175 ce, boddhisavatta. chant nan amida buta
TRUE PURBLAND BUDDHISM: (shin buddhism) founded by shriran... you can save yourself... faith over acts. egalitarian. monasteries aren't important.
model after tang china
borrowed chinese writing system
emperors: figureheads, symbolically important. .. became increasingly more decentralized with feudalism. japan ruled by military
military: shogun ruled. claimed to serve emperor. no mandate of heaven
samurai: professional warrior class who served daimyo
not high ranking. bushido: code of honor
khemer empire 9-15th centuries ... blended buddhist and hindu cultures. centered in cambodia... ankor wat- largest hindu temple.