Ecology of the Mass Media (The Internet (issues w/ internet…
Ecology of the Mass Media
Understanding the Media
Mass Media- communication where large audiences quickly receive messages via impersonal medium between sender & receiver
Mass Media & Socialization
Media influences values, beliefs, attitudes, & behavior.
Are shapers, spreader, and transformers of culture
Spreaders in that they extend capacity as human beings to process info and transform us in some way
Media creates new environments by computers, phones, print, etc.
Media can change experience, enhance experience, or interfere with it.
Macrosystem consists of politics, economics, and technology
Mass communication system in US is normally private ownership and dedicated to corporate profits. Media is subjects to regulation by FCC.
Main emphasis of mass communication is entertainment
As long as media is US is designed to sell products, they will convey messages that will influence attitudes/behaviors.
Parents must be careful when allowing children to watch or listen to the media
Children and Screen Media: TV & Movies
Because they are more cognitively immature, they are more vulnerable to the amount of time spent watching TV and are more susceptible to its influence.
Affect on Culture
Advances in TV created change in sleep habits, meal arrangements, use of leisure time, and conversation patters
Action for Children's Television (ACT)- request to have age-specific advertising limits in children TV.
Childhood consumerization expanded in 1990's
Theories on Media
Social Cognitive Theory
- media contributes to learning by enabling children to observe role models on screen
- media affects peoples' beliefs about the world and alters behavior
The impact of media depends on how media are used and the characteristics of the user
- media used for entertainment may displace important developmental activities
Media & Socialization: Concerns
Evidence exists linking heavy media consumption with obesity
Children view an average of 15 food ads on TV
Media is linked to increase in substance use/abuse
Psychological Development & Behavior
They way media presents info affects perception of reality. Perception of something varies among individuals
producers use TV as cues to appeal to particular audiences- Ex: advertisements for girls' and boys' toys differ. Boys and girls pick up on sex-typed cues
Children accept what TV portrays as the truth and do not test it against reality
Emotions about Aggression and Violence
TV provides images that have capacity to frighten & traumatize children. The intensity of these have increased.
Bad TV introduces children to frightening images, events, and ideas
When violence is justified, goes unpunished, or shows no harm or pain, it is more likely to influence the viewer
Violence in films has more than doubled since 1950
Children who watch violence are more prone to behave aggressively
Children under 8 are more easily persuaded by TV messages
Children under 8 do not understand that the purpose of the ad is to sell something
When smoking/drinking is glamorized in the media, experimenting with these things among teens increases
Advertisers are attuned to children's developmental stages and their needs for peer approval, status, and independence
TV watching can decrease reading levels in children, and decreases cognitive development
Takes children away from pursuits such as reading, hobbies, etc.
Extensive TV watching negatively affects academic achievement
Mesosystem Influence on Media
Cable & Satellite TV
Public Interest Groups
Educational TV is used by teachers as part of curriculum
Educational institutions can broadcast their own programs
Educational TV in classroom reinforces reading, aids in development of knowledge, enhances student comprehension, provides accommodation of diverse learning styles, increases motivation, and promotes teacher effectiveness
Peer Group-Media Linkages
peers can influence by digital devices that allow them to keep connected
Children believe that if they don't talk online w/ people, they might miss something
Family- Media Linkages
parents must exercise responsibility in regulating/ monitoring media in home
parental involvement in children's viewing is infrequent
Music is used to control mood & enhance emotional states
Girls prefer softer, more romantic music and boys prefer louder forms of rock Girls in general listen more than boys.
Popular music provides teens a means of identifying w/ particular group/ performer
pre-teens and teens do not always understand or attend to underlying theme in lyrics
Some believe listening to despairing lyrics is a symptom of alienation
continued exposure to violent lyrics can lead to aggression
Do songs reflect values of particular generation or do they influence their values?
- an individual exposed to a suggestion will act on it
issues w/ internet
Inappropriate websites, privacy issues over illegal transfer of copyright material as well as the ability to track online usage patterns & access to personal data, hack unauthorized info, viruses, and junk mail ("spam").
Children spent 1 1/2 hours on the internet/day and have access to it at school & home
Social networking facilitates communication among large groups by messages, photos, music, YouTube videos, etc.
As internet use increases, social activities/experiences decrease
problems w/ children surfing web include accessing inappropriate/ overwhelming material, being exposed to info promoting violence and porn, bombarded by intense advertising, etc.
Finding porn on the internet is easy today. Boys are more likely to seek out porn than girls and use increases w/ age.