Circulation of the Petroleum Diet (Africa (Nigeria, Sasakawa Global 2000,…
Circulation of the Petroleum Diet
US Foreign Aid during Cold War
Rockefeller: Technological Research and Capacity Building
Five Year Plan (1951-1956)
Technical Cooperation Program (TCP)
TCP: Soil-testing facilities testing chemical-centric qualities
Traditional Indian Kashyapiyakrisisukti treaties: Observing the colours, natural contents of the soil
India starving during independence from Britain
IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Green Revolution: Ethical Debates
India: 1% increase in yield/ha = 0.4% in poverty rate
However, the poverty alleviation is not even, it favours area of high agricultural production, creating geographical disparities.
Technology and policy bypasses the poor farmers: inequitable land distribution, tenancy rights, small-holders discriminatory policies, advanced technology subsidies.
Nourishment rates and caloric intake generally increased, dietary diversity fell due to focusing on high-value monocultures.
Legumes were neglected while wheat and rice were promoted
Philippines and India
Although less land is needed due to HYV's, there was larger environmental impacts due to poor policy making in India which promoted overuse of inputs.
Overuse of water
Soil Degradation (erosion, mineral leeching, compaction, over-tilling, acidification, alkalization)
Chemical Runoff (Pesticides, Fertilizers)
Subsidies focused on pesticides, irrigation technology, fertilizers.
Technologies ineffective in marginalized geographical regions (HYV not as effective without irrigation, fertilizers only 10% effective in dry regions.)
urban migration vs. employment.
IRRI: International Rice Research institute
Riyoichi Sasakawa - Nippon Foundation
International Institute for Tropical Agriculture
Common Crops: Sorghum, Millet, Cassava (Pingali)
Britain and the Industrial Revolution
Social and Labour Changes
CIMMYT: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre
Honduras + Caribbean
Bovell's Sugar Plantations
Father of the Green Revolution
Norman contended social issues of the Green Revolution: Displacement of farms, corporate control of agricultural industries.
However, he accepted the environmental issues: over reliance on chemicals,
"Sixty-two years of Wghting hunger: personal recollections" - Primary Article Source
Joined Rockefeller Foundation-Mexican Government program,
called the OWcina de Estudios Especiales
(OEE) - 1944
Precursor for CIMMYT, and virtually all institutions under the CGIAR umbrella.
Training Mexican scientists to address agricultural issues with their main staple crops: maize, beans, wheat, potatoes.
Stem rust resistant strains was the first development/project which lead to shuttle breeding.
*Make maps of Mexican research centres.
Attention on mexico after VP Wallace visited and requested they help during the second world war (1942)