North and Central African Societies (Muslims States (Almohads Take Over…
North and Central African Societies
oldest form of social organization, began in africa
these groups speak their own language, use their own hunting techniques
Efe: one of several hunting-gathering societies in Africa
Ituri Forest in the Democratic Republic of Congo
live in small groups between 10 and 100 members, all are related
Each family occupies its own grass-and-brush shelter within a camp, homes are rarely permanent
Nomadic, they collect few possessions and move to new camps as they use resources in the surrounding area
In Efe, the women are the gatherers, they walk through the forest searching for roots, yams, mushrooms, and wild seeds
Efe men and older boys do the hunting, and go out in groups to hunt small antelope called duikers
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Respected older male(father, uncle, father-in-law) serves as group leader
Members of the group listen to and value this man's opinion, he does not give orders or act as chief
Each family within the band makes its own decisions and is free to come and go
Group members settle arguments through long discussions
If conflicts cannot be settled by talking, a group member may decide to move to a different hunting band
Daily life for the Efe is not governed by formal written laws
Q: To what might the Efe attribute their long success as a hunting-gathering society?
A: Their ability to talk to each other freely and not have such harsh rules. Their leader also is not fully in charge of making the decisions in the society.
Q: What feature of the Efe Social Structure is most like that of a democratic society?
A: Their authority is spread throughout the society.
In African societies, families are organized in groups called
Members of a
believe they are descendants of a common ancestor
A lineage includes past and future generations and members feel strong loyalties to each other
How is lineage important to stateless societies?
Lineage is important because it's what their society is based on and it forms their identity on who they are
Develop systems based on lineages
Societies known as
, based authority among lineages of equal power so no family had too much control
The Igbo people lived in a stateless society as early as the ninth century
If there was a dispute, respected elders from different lineages settled the problem
Igbos later met problems from 19-century European colonizers who expected one leader to rule over society
How would a conflict between youngest cousins be resolved?
It would be resolved by respected elders from different lineages
Tracing Family Descent
In African society, society traces it's lineage by determining how possessions and property are passed on and what groups people belong to
Members of a
society trace their ancestors through their fathers
When a son marries, he, his wife, and their children remain part of his father's extended family
society, children trace their ancestors through their mothers
Young men inherit land and wealth from their mother's family
Even in a matrilineal society, men usually hold positions of authority
Types of Society
Which society was more efficient or beneficial?
Young people form close ties in people outside their lineage through the age-set system
An age set consists of young people in a region born during a certain time period
Age sets pass through life stages and ceremonies mark the passage to each stage
Men and women have different life stages and they each have its own duties and importance
Societies use the age-set system to teach discipline, community service, and leadership skills to their young
Why was the age-set system important to their society?
Islam played a vital role in North Africa
As Islam spread, African rulers started to convert to islamic ways
Muslims believe the God is the highest authority
What made them decide to convert?
By 670 the Muslims ruled Egypt and entered the Maghrib
This is now the Mediterranean coast which includes, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
Following the law in Islam is a religious obligation
Muslims don't separate their personal life and religious life
The Islamic law covers every area of human life
This brought order to Muslim States
Muslim States had different ethnic and cultural differences
This was because of the different interpretations and schools
Why is this?
What made religion so important?
Islamic force was the so significant that some states are still influenced today
A group called the Berber's also converted to islamic ways
They were fiercely independent desert and mountain dwellers from North Africa
They accepted Islam as their faith but kept their Berber identities and loyalties
Why did they change their faith but keep everything else?
There was two Berber groups, the Almoravids and the Almohads; both founded empires
These empires united the Maghrib
What made the Maghrib unite?
Muslims reformers founded the Almoravid empire in the 11th century
Members came from the Berber group that lived in the western Sahara
The movement began when the Berbers made a pilgrimage to Mecca
On their way home they asked Abd Allah Ibn Yasin to come with them and teach their people about Islam
His teachings eventually brought in followers
This created a religious brotherhood called the Almoravids
Their name is because they lived in a fortified monastery
In the 1050s he led his group to spread Islam
After Ibn Yasin died the Almoravids took over Morocco and found Marrakech
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What about his teachings brought in followers?
What made them want to have other people learn about Islam?
The Islamic Laws are set in stone, they cannot and will not change. While in the United States the laws can be subject to change
The Almoravids were less strict than the Almohads.
Almohads Take Over
The Almohads were another group of Berber Muslim reformers
They began as a religious movement in the Mountains of Morocco
What made them begin this?
They followed Ibn Tumart after a pilgrimage to Mecca
He criticized the later Almoravid rulers for not following the traditional practice of Islam
What made him think they were not following the Islamic ways?
He made sure his followers to strictly obey the teachings of the Qur'an and Islamic law
In the mid 1100s they seized power from the Almoravids
They fought to overthrow the Almoravids and remains true to the islamic ways
By 1148 they controlled most of Morocco and officially ended Almoravid rule
They kept Marrakech as their capital
By the end of the 12th century they had taken over most of Southern Spain
In Africa their territory stretched from Marrakech to Tripoli
Empire lasted a little more than 100 years and united the Maghrib for the first time