North and Central African Societies
North and Central African Societies
After Muhammad died in 632, the Muslims swept Northern Africa.
They converted many by peace and conquest.
The Muslims ruled Egypt and entered Maghrib.
Some African rulers converted and made their government based on Islam.
Muslims believed that God's rule was higher than any human, so religious scholars were government advisers.
Why would African Rulers want to base their government on their religion?
Following the law is a religious obligation
Islamic law helped to bring order to Muslim states
Muslim states had ethnic and cultural differences
Two Berber groups, the Almoravids and the Almohads, founded empires that united the Maghrib under Muslim rule
What are Berbers?
How do states governed by the Islamic Law differ from the United States?
The United States doesn't have to follow a religious obligation
Self - Interest
Members came from a Berber group
Made a a pilgrimage to Mecca. Convinced a Muslim scholar to return with them to teach their people about Islam
Brotherhood named the Almoravids
The Almoravids took Morocco and found Marrakech which became their capital
Why did it become the capital?
Almohads Take Over
Seized power from the Almoravids
Religious movement in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco
Fought to overthrow the Almoravids and remain true to their view of traditional Islamic beliefs
Controlled most of Morocco and ended Almoravid rule
The empire grew
How did the Almoravids and the Almohads differ?
Almoravids were a fortified monastery while Almohads were Muslim Reformers
Hunting Gathering Societies
Hunting Gathering Societies began in Africa.
There is a small population of them today in Africa.
They use their own language and hunting tactics.
For what reason do you think there is a small population of hunter gatherers in Africa?
The Efe live in the Ituri Forest in Zaire in small groups (all are related).
They have temporary homes because their search for food makes them migrate.
As they use up their resources in area, they move to a new one with few possessions.
Women gather goods, such as roots, yams, mushrooms, and wild seeds.
Efe males hunt. In big groups they hunt duikers. Individually, they hunt using poison-tipped arrows to kill mammals.
The Efe trade honey, wild game, and other forest goods for crops grown by nearby farmers.
What do you think the Efe made their homes out of?
The group leader is usually an elder man. Such as a father, uncle, or father-in-law.
The leader gives advice to the people; he doesn't dictate.
Each family makes their own decisions and go when they want.
Arguments are settled with discussion. If it is not settled, they can move to a new group.
The Efe are not governed by laws.
What feature of the Efe Social Structure is most like that of a democratic society?
In our democratic society, we have the freedom to make choices. The Efe have that same concept of being able to do what they want and not having to follow what their leaders says.
To what might the Efe attribute their long success as a hunting-gathering society?
I think that their social system gave them the advantage of surviving because conflict can cause a decrease in efficiency. If a person or group who was creating conflict can leave, then they are no longer causing to distract the group from their tasks.
In many African societies, families are organized in groups called lineages (descendants of a common ancestor)
A lineage includes past and future generations
In some African societies, lineage groups took the place of rulers which was called a stateless society
The power in a stateless society was balanced among lineages of equal power so that no one family had too much control
The Igbo was a Nigerian group that lived in a stateless society as early as the ninth century
If a problem arose within an Igbo village, elders from different lineages settled the problem
Why do you think they used lineages instead of rulers? Because it creates less problems and conflicts for people to fight over.
How is lineage important to stateless societies? So that no family has too much control
How would a conflict between two cousins be solved? Older generations would help solve the problem
Tracing Family Decent
In African societies, the way a society traces lineage determines how possessions and property are passed on and what groups they belong to
A patrilineal society trace their ancestors through their fathers
In a matrilineal society, children trace their ancestors through their mothers
Which society is most common? The patrilineal society
In many African societies, young people form close ties to people outside their lineage through the age-set system
An age set consists of people within a region who are born during a certain time period
Ceremonies mark the passage to each new stage
Men and women have different life stages, and each stage has its own duties and importance
The age-set system teaches discipline, community service, and leadership skills to their young
Why do you think they used the age set system? These people were more alike than different and this allowed them to know people who were like them.