Middle Ages or Medieval Period D30 D31 D32 D33 D34 D35 D36 D44 (Timeline,…
Middle Ages or Medieval Period D30 D31 D32 D33 D34 D35 D36
The Middle Ages or Medieval Times, in Europe was a long period of history from
500 AD to 1500 AD
It covers the time from the fall of the Roman Empire to the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
This was a time of
Great leaders such as
Joan Of Arc
Were part of the Middle Ages as well as major events such as the
The Black Plague
The Rise Of Islam
476 - The fall of the Roman Empire. Rome had ruled much of Europe. Now much of the land would fall into confusion as local kings and rulers tried to grab power. This is the start of the Dark Ages or the Middle Ages.
570 - Muhammad, prophet of Islam is born.
732 - Battle of Tours. The Franks defeat the Muslims turning back Islam from Europe.
481 - Clovis becomes King of the Franks. Clovis united most of the Frankish tribes that were part of Roman Province of Gaul.
800 - Charlemagne, King of the Franks, is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne united much of Western Europe and is considered the father of both the French and the German Monarchies.
835 - Vikings from the Scandinavian lands (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) begin to invade northern Europe. They would continue until 1042.
896 - Alfred the Great, King of England, turns back the Viking invaders.
1066 - William of Normandy, a French Duke, conquers England in the Battle of Hastings. He became King of England and changed the country forever.
1096 - Start of the First Crusade. The Crusades were wars between the Holy Roman Empire and the Muslims over the Holy Land. There would be several Crusades over the next 200 years.
1189 - Richard I, Richard the Lionheart, becomes King of England.
1206 - The Mongol Empire is founded by Genghis Khan.
1215 - King John of England signs the Magna Carta. This document gave the people some rights and said the king was not above the law.
1271 - Marco Polo leaves on his famous journey to explore Asia.
1337 - The Hundred Years War begins between England and France for control of the French throne. 1347 - The Black Death begins in Europe. This horrible disease would kill around half of the people in Europe.
1347 - The Black Death begins in Europe. This horrible disease would kill around half of the people in Europe.
1431 - French heroine Joan of Arc is executed by England at the age of 19.
1444 - German inventor Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press. This will signal the start of the Renaissance.
1453 - The Ottoman Empire captures the city of Constantinople. This signals the end of the Eastern Roman Empire also known as Byzantium.
1482 - Leonardo Da Vinci paints "The Last Supper."
The first thing people want to see when they come to Europe are the Castles
Motte and Bailley
an old Castle
Almost made out of timber
Wooden Tower on top of the Motte . And the Motte is the mound of Earth
Wooden Palisades also encircle the complex
The ground inside the Palisades were called the Bailey
Then there was a movement away from Timber to Stone
It became the default material of choice
The tool and weapons also used stones as a default choice
Different parts of a Castle
Half of the bridge was a fixed bridge
Which was connected to the ground
The other half was the drawbridge and that was connected to the castle itself
Under the bridge was a a pit full of insects
The walls were 75 feet tall and 20 feet thick
It had multiple Bailey
So if the attacker succeedsthrough the outer Bailey, then there is the inner Bailey which is 10 times harder to defeat
It could be 100 feet tall
The ground floor
Can be storage space because it had no windows
Everyone would have lived in the hall including the Lord himself
It was the most impressive room in the castle
Castle to Palaces
We can see the best castle to palace in Sintra
Sintra is located in Portugal right outside of Lisbon
Sintra is on a mountain
The castle itself looks defensive
with large and thick walls
Between the Palace of Sintra and the Castle of Moors
you can see that the castle has a lot of protection than the palace
because a palace is more like a big house or in other words it is a mansion
It was built over a river
It is not made for protection but it is made for power
because it can be attacked from two sides
in modern times they also build Palaces around the world too
like the Malaysian National Palace
It was recently built
Religion in the middle ages
Charles Martel stopped the Muslim invasion of much of Europe at the battle of Tours
so there was little Muslim influence in Europe which allowed for a very powerful Christian Church to emerge
Religion was very important in the Middle Ages
And in reality the medical church was the most powerful force in Europe
The teachings and practices played a major part in shaping the lives of European Christians
The priest of the parish or region was usually the only contact that people had with the church
The priests cared for the souls of his parishioners by
Celebrating the mass and administering the sacraments
Middle Ages Timeline
476 AD Fall of the Roman Empire
500 Poverty and Unsafety
622 Beginning of Islam
673 Siege of Constiantinople
800 Charlemange promotes Science and Education for all!
Mean while in the East they are way ahead of them
They have Universities!
They are studying the Acient Greeks
They conduct Science based on Logic and Experiments
Jabir Ibn Hayyan arranged Chemical Elements
Al-Khwarizmi popularised the use of Indian Numerals
Al-Razi Discovered the difference between Smallpox and the Measles and Kerosene
Avicenna wrote the canon of Medicine: Al-Qanun and Al-Tibb
Al-Haytham was the founder of Optomery
1096 The Christians are attacking the Muslims! They want to re-conquer Jerusalem
New invention: Crossbow but the Pope forbid it because it was too dangerous
1216 Averroes translated works of Article and annotated them. The Dominicans translate it into Latin
Scince means to them: Figuring out God's Design of his creation, through Logic and experiment
1350 The Plague
1436 New Invention: Printing Press
1492: Columbus discovers America
The High Middle Ages
What were the High Middle Ages?
A period lasting from 1000 - 1300
The end of barbarian invasions
Brave men like Saint Ansgar travelled north to convert the Vikings and eventually succeeded
The Vikings settled down
The Italian City of Venice emerged as a major economic and naval power during the High Middle Ages
Unified culture under western Christanity
Huge but weak
Leads to a long slow decline
Finally Napoleon puts out of its misery in 1086
Political Organization In The Early Middle Ages
The centralization of the Carolingian state was not long a source of
political stability in western Europe in the early Middle Ages
In those areas
where the Carolingian Empire had little impact, and even in the regions which
were at some time controlled by Carolingian rulers, personal safety and
security were the primary concerns for most individuals
In circumstances that
make strong central government impossible, individual security must be
guaranteed by other means
usually through local custom and practice.
Historians have used the term feudalism to apply generally to these individual
patterns of decentralized government
The diversity of political structure in
the early Middle Ages was great
varied from region to region. We must be
aware that in using the term to describe medieval political structures, we are
attempting a simplification of an extremely diversified and complex set of